2010年12月22日 星期三

哈佛的難題! 也是我們的難題!



  




作者:李雪莉、彭昱融  出處:天下雜誌 410期 2008/11

哈佛的難題:聰明、會考試,卻不會問問題
十月初,哈佛大學一項學生學習成效調查結果,在哈佛教授間投下了一顆震撼彈。哈佛大學伯克教學中心(Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning)針對二十門課的教授、四百位學生,分別調查老師與學生是否掌握課堂「核心概念」(Big Idea)?跌破教授眼鏡的是,只有不到三成的學生,抓到教授在那門課想傳達的核心概念。

哈佛發現,即便是聰明又會考試的全美資優生,也
經常帶著偏見的知識前來學習。他們很會考試但不會問好問題,他們習慣被動學習,導致學習成效很差
當我們更重視學生如何得到答案,而非答案本身的時候,會發現學生的思考或邏輯不夠好,求知、探尋問題的技巧其實相當糟。

2010年12月19日 星期日

L9 Robert Frost and His Poems

課文翻譯與重點分析
1. Robert Frost (1874-1963) is probably the best-known American poet of the twentieth century.(見第1行)

(1) well-known = famous
better-known = more famous
best-known = most famous
文法/句型
be famous/well-known for something因(某成就)有名
be famous/well-known as somebody/something 因(某職稱、身份)有名
be famous/well-known to somebody 為(某人)所知
例:She is famous for her talents as a painter.
Taiwan is well-known as a beautiful island.
The pop singer is well-known to teenagers.

2. For nearly half a century he was the unofficial poet laureate of America, and his poems have been widely read around the world.(見第7行)
(1) widely adv. 廣泛地
例:Chopsticks are widely used in Asian countries.

3. ..., he used to sit in his mother's classroom and memorize long passages of prose and poetry, and thus grew to love language and literature.(見第17行)
(1) used to V 過去一向,過去習慣於
例:There used to be several pubs on the street, but they closed down one after another.
(2) thus = in this way
(3) grew to love language and literature
= came to love language and literature gradually
grow v.逐漸變得

4. ..., but it was not until his stay in England from 1912 to 1915 that he gained public recognition as a poet.(見第19行)
(1) stay n. 短暫的停留,暫時居住
例:I hope you will enjoy your stay in our hotel.
(2) gained public recognition獲得公認

5. The walks that he took on his farm allowed him to observe the details of nature and the rural landscape:....(見第22行)
(1)take a walk = go for a walk 散步
例:It's enjoyable to take a walk on a quiet country lane.

6. The rural environment that Frost knew and loved also included a strong human presence.(見第27行)S V
(1) included a strong human presence 蘊含強烈的人文氣息

7. In fact, it is his awareness of man's relationship with nature that brings us some of Frost's most memorable images-images that not only move us with their serene beauty, but also inspire us by addressing universal questions of life.(見第28行)
(1) It is ... that/who .... 分裂句(強調his awareness of man's relationship with nature)
例:It was Edward who gave her a bunch of flowers.(強調送花的人Edward)
  It was a bunch of flowers that Edward gave her.(強調送的東西是一束花)
分裂句動詞的單複數要根據所強調的主體而定。
例:It is the Simpsons who are going to Hawaii on vacation.
(2) memorable = unforgettable 難忘的
(3) move us with their serene beauty以寧謐之美打動我們
move v. [T] 感動;打動
例:This story has moved many people.
(4) addressing universal questions of life探討舉世皆然的人生問題
address = deal with

8. ...; his decision about which way to go becomes a metaphor for the major turning points that a person confronts in life.(見第34行)S(his~ to go) 名詞子句(作about的受詞)
(1) a metaphor for ... 為……的隱喻
(4) the major turning points that a person confronts in life一個人在生活中遭遇的重大轉捩點

9. In another poem, "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening," a rider on horseback contemplates whether he should stop and enjoy the beautiful winter scenery or continue home, his dilemma reflecting the universal struggle between freedom and duty.(見第36行)
(1) stop v. [T, I] 停留(在某地)
例:I can't stop-my husband is waiting for me in the car.
(2) snowy adj. 積雪的;多雪的;似雪的
例:We were glad that Christmas morning was cold and snowy.
(3) home作為指示方向的副詞,前面不加to。
例:on the way home 在回家的路上
(4) his dilemma reflecting the universal struggle between freedom and duty分詞構句,主詞不同所以保留,此用法大都出現在較正式的文章
(5) reflecting the universal struggle between freedom and duty反映出自由與責任之間舉世皆然的掙扎

10. To his regret, the rider realizes that before he can enjoy his freedom, he must fulfill his responsibilities. (見第39行)
(1) 介系詞to後接情感名詞,表達「某個行動後產生的感受」。常寫為to one's + N 或 to the + N + of someone
例:They finally decided to get married, to the joy of their friends.
  To our surprise, he won the first place in the contest.
(2) fulfill one's responsibility 達成職責;不負使命
fulfill one's obligation 履行義務
fulfill one's promise 履行諾言
例:I will fulfill my obligation to the best of my ability.

11. As we can see, common human experiences, with Frost's unique touch, are elevated to a level of profound meaning.(見第41行)
(1) touch n. [sing.](做某事的)風格,手法
例:His unique skills gave the performance the special touch.

12. To this day, his poems continue to touch the hearts of readers everywhere.(見第43行)
(1) to this day 時至今日;到現在
例:To this day, I don't know exactly what happened to him.
(2) touch v.觸動,感動
touch one's heart 感動某人的心靈
例:The novel of Bridges of Madison County deeply touched me/touched my heart.

13. And sorry I could not travel both / And be one traveler, long I stood / And looked down one as far as I could / To where it bent in the undergrowth;(見第47行)
(1) long I stood = I stood there for a long time.
(2) look down something 沿著……往前看

14. Then took the other, as just as fair, / And having perhaps the better claim, / Because it was grassy and wanted wear;(見第51行)
(1) Then took the other = Then I took the other road. 「我又試選了另一條路。」
文法/句型
「區分兩個項目」的說法:one ... the other
「區分三個項目」的說法:one ... another ... the other
「區分四個項目」的說法: one ... another ... still another ... the other
例:Mrs. Wilson has two daughters. One is a teacher, and the other is a nurse.
My four best friends listen to different kinds of music. One likes pop songs, another likes classical music, still another loves folk music, and the other enjoys jazz.
(2) as (it was) just as fair = as this road was just as fair as the other one因這一條路也一樣美好
(3) having perhaps the better claim
= This road perhaps had a better claim than the first one.
claim n.主張;聲明擁有;有權要求
(4) wanted wear = lacked wear = was not much worn 缺乏磨損
例:The shoes showed signs of wear.

15. Though as for that, the passing there / Had worn them really about the same,(見第54行)
(1) as for 至於……
that 指前句grassy and wanted wear的狀況。
(2) passing n.(人跡的)經過
(3) really about the same = nearly the same 差不多

16. Oh, I kept the first for another day! / Yet knowing how way leads on to way, / I doubted if I should ever come back.(見第58行)
(1) doubt v.懷疑(認定事情不真的可能性較高)
例:I have no doubt that she will come.
  = I believe that she will come.

17. I shall be telling this with a sigh / Somewhere ages and ages hence:(見第61行)
(1) with a sigh 帶著一聲嘆息
(2) hence在此意為from now今後

18. I took the one less traveled by, / And that has made all the difference.(見第64行)
(1) that has made all the difference 一次決定卻造成之後的重大影響
make some difference 有些差別;有些關係
make no/little difference 沒有差別;沒什麼兩樣
make a world of difference 有天壤之別
例:His effort made a world of difference to me.

19. Whose woods these are I think I know.(見第67行)
= I think I know whose woods these are.
(1) woods 樹林

20. His house is in the village though;(見第68行)
(1) though adv. 然而

21. He will not see me stopping here / To watch his woods fill up with snow.(見第69行)
(1) stop to V = stop and V 停下來而去做某事
stop V-ing 停止做某事
例:On his way home, he stopped to help an old lady cross the street.
Can you stop playing that violin? It's late.

22. My little horse must think it queer / To stop without a farmhouse near(見第71行)
(1) it指後面to stop without a farmhouse near,全句為My little horse must think it strange to stop at a place where no farmhouse is nearby.

23. Between the woods and frozen lake / The darkest evening of the year.(見第73行)
(1) frozen adj. 結冰的

VOCABULARY
I.Words for production
1. literature n. [U, C] 文學;文獻
literal adj. 照字面的;原意的
literate adj. 能讀寫的
illiterate adj. 不識字的;缺乏教育的
illiterate n. [C] 文盲
例:There is extensive literature on the subject. 
A literal translation may not be close to the original meaning.
  Only ten percent of the women on this island are literate.
  The illiterate old man had difficulty writing his own name.

4. officially adv. 正式地;官方說法地
official residence 官邸
official statistics 官方統計數字
例:The singer was officially invited to perform at the prince's birthday party.

5. talented adj. 有天分的,有才華的
a talent contest/show 才藝競賽/才藝表演
a talent scout 星探,球探,體育探子
例:He used to be a talented baseball player, but an injury ended his career.

6. manhood 成人時期
likelihood 可能性
priesthood 神職,神職人員
sisterhood 姊妹身份;婦女運動團體

9. gain weight 增重
gain in sth. ……逐漸增加;愈來愈……
One man's loss is another man's gain. 從別人的損失中獲得好處。
例:As he grew older, he gained in confidence and charm.

12. trademark 商標
landmark 地標
birthmark 胎記
postmark 郵戳

13. present adj. 出席的;現在的n. [U] 現在;目前;[C] 禮物v. [T] 呈現
at present 目前;當今
up to the present 迄今;到目前為止
present sb. with sth. = present sth. to sb. 將(某物)呈給(某人)
例:Seeing so many people present, the boss was satisfied.
  She is with her mother at present.

18. to face a dilemma (of ...) 面臨(……)兩難的局面
例:He's facing the dilemma of studying abroad or losing his girlfriend.

19. a sense of duty 責任感
on/off duty 值勤/下勤務(指護士、警察等需輪流值班的行業)
have a duty to V 有責任、義務(去做)……
例:Let's have a drink when you go off duty today.
  Parents have a duty to take good care of their children.

20. irresponsible adj. 不負責任的
have a responsibility to/toward somebody 對(某人)有職責、義務
take responsibility for V-ing/N 為(某事)負責
sense of responsibility 責任感
例:It was irresponsible of the factory to allow the river to become so polluted.
  I believe every individual in the team has a responsibility to the others.
  Who will take responsibility for the mess now?

23. divergence n. [C, U] 分歧
divergent adj. 分歧的
diverge from 從……分出
例:There is a wide divergence of opinion on the issue.
  The hunters lost track of the animal on divergent paths.
  Human ancestors diverged from those of the chimpanzee between five and seven million years ago.

24. bend n. [C] 彎曲處
bendable adj. 可彎曲的
例:Many accidents have taken place at this sharp bend in the road.
  Soft and bendable toys are most suitable for young children.

25. lay claim to something 聲稱擁有某物
have a claim on something 有資格擁有某物
claim damages 要求賠償損失
claim one's life 使(某人)喪命
例:The crisis arose when both countries laid claim to the island.
  No matter what you are engaged in, your children have a claim on your time.
  The tornado last week claimed sixteen lives.

26. wear something away 損耗;磨破
wear somebody down 使疲乏;使軟弱
wear off 消失
wear somebody out 使人累壞了
wear (something) out 損壞
例:The writing on the cover has almost (been) worn away.
  The couple were apparently worn down by caring for their newborn baby.
  The boy was bored with his new video game as soon as the novelty wore off.
  You'll wear yourself out if you don't relax a bit.
  Some parts in the machine have worn out and need to be replaced.

27. equal n. [C] 同等的人或物v. [T] 相等
equality n. [U] 平等
例:All men are created equal.
One meter equals one hundred centimeters.
  The foundation is committed to racial equality.

28. tread carefully/warily/lightly/gently 謹慎地處理某事(以避免得罪任何人)
例:The government has to tread warily on sensitive racial issues.

IDIOMS AND PHRASES
1. honorary adj.(官階或學位)榮譽的
honor n. [U, C] 敬重;榮譽v. [T] 敬重
honorable adj. 高貴的;可敬重的
例:Let's fight for the honor of our country.
  We are honored by your presence.
  He is a man of many honorable deeds.

3. poet laureate 桂冠詩人
laureate n. [C] 接受無上榮耀封贈的人
a Nobel laureate 諾貝爾獎得主

2010年12月16日 星期四

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2010年12月6日 星期一

L8 Hurry Up or Slow Down

課文重點分析

1. "The race is not to the swift or the battle to the strong." (Eccl. 9:11)(見第1行)(善於賽跑的人不一定跑第一;勇士不一定打勝仗)
(1) to the swift 對the swift有偏愛,這是古文to的語意
(2) the swift 迅速者
the + adj. → N,表「全體」
(3) not A or B = neither A nor B 既非A也非B
例:He's not a doctor or a pharmacist.

2. Several times a year they would load up the old ox-drawn cart with vegetables and go into the nearest city to sell their produce.(見第3行)
(1) load (a vehicle)(up) with something 使(運輸工具)承載……
例:Don't load your bicycle up with so much stuff. You may lose balance.
(2) the ox-drawn cart = the cart which was drawn by an ox
複合形容詞的形成方式有以下幾種:
1. 名詞 + 過去分詞 a heart-broken girl
2. 名詞 + 現在分詞 a peace-loving people
3. 形容詞 + 名詞-ed a kind-hearted lady
4. 形容詞 + 現在分詞  a good-looking person
5. 副詞 + 過去分詞 a well-behaved child
6. 副詞 + 現在分詞 a fast-moving object

3. Except for their name and the patch of ground, father and son had little in common.(見第5行)
(1) except for/apart from/aside from/other than + N/V-ing 除了……之外
besides/in addition to/apart from/aside from + N/V-ing 除了……之外還有
例:During those two months, she hadn't done anything productive except for going to school.
  Besides English, he is also good at Italian and French.

4. The son figured that if they walked faster and kept going all day and night, they'd make the market by early the next morning.(見第9行)
(1) figure v. [T] 想;認為;計算 n. [C] 數字;外形;身影;重要人物
figure out 算出;想出
keep one's figure 保持身材
例:I figure that he's not going to give up.
  Have you figured out the answer?
  What do you do to keep your figure?
(2) make/make it to +地方 抵達;到得了……
例:Do you think we can make home by four o'clock?

5. So he kept prodding the ox with a stick, urging the beast to get a move on.(見第11行)
(1) urge somebody to V 驅策/鼓勵某人做……
urge n. 衝動
urgent adj. 緊急的
urgency n. [U] 緊急情況
例:My mom urged me to make a boyfriend.
  I had a sudden urge to yell at everybody.
  This is urgent! Call 119 for an ambulance!
  This is a matter of urgency. There can be no delay.

6. "But if we get to market ahead of the others, we'll have a better chance of getting good prices," argued the son.(見第14行)
(1) ahead of 在……之前
例:He swam ahead of all the others.
(2) chance n. 可能性 =likelihood, possibility
例: a slim/slight chance 可能性很低
  a fifty-fifty chance 百分之五十的可能性
(3) argue 提出論點;主張說;爭論
argument n. 論點;各人主張
例:He argued that college entrance exams should be abolished.
  The author's arguments in this article are not very convincing to me.

7. Dad just pulled his hat down over his eyes and fell asleep on the seat.(見第16行)
(1) over表示「在……的上方」
over和above的比較:
表示「高於……」,over和above皆可
例:There is a large crystal chandelier above/over the stage.
表示「在……上方,並覆蓋住」,多用over
例:She put a blanket over her husband, who had fallen asleep on the sofa.

8. "Then a few more minutes won't matter. My brother and I live so close, yet we see each other so seldom," the father answered slowly.(見第24行)
(1) matter: make a difference 具重要性;緊要
例:It doesn't matter to me whether you like me or not.
matter n. 事情;問題」。
a matter of ... 一件……的事
no matter who/where/how ... 無論……
例:Please phone me as soon as possible-it's a matter of life and death.
  No matter how much you beg me, I won't lend you any more money.
(2) yet conj. 然而,卻
例:He has a good wife, yet he seems to be unhappy in his marriage.

9. The boy fidgeted and fumed while the two old men laughed and talked away almost an hour.(見第27行)
(1) while: during the time when,後面通常接時間持續比較長的動作
when: at the time that,後面通常接時間比較短的動作。
例:I was taking a shower when the phone rang.
  The phone rang while I was taking a shower.
(2) away adv. 持續地
例:I bought a new book and then spent the afternoon reading away.

10. "I know it," replied the old man, "but this way is so much prettier."(見第32行)
(1)修飾比較級: much, far, very much, so much, a lot, lots, a little, a bit等。
例:My brother's car is a lot more spacious than mine.

11. "Have you no respect for time?" the young man asked impatiently.(見第34行)
(1) respect n. [U] v. [T] 尊敬;敬重
have/show respect for ... 尊敬……;對……表示尊敬
例:Have some respect for the old lady, will you?

12. That's why I like to use it to appreciate beauty and enjoy each moment to the fullest.(見第36行)
(1) that's why ... 那就是……的原因
(2) appreciate v. [T] 欣賞;感謝
be appreciative of something 感激
例:I don't know how to appreciate art.
  I'm very appreciative of everybody's help.
(3) enjoy something to the full/fullest 盡情享受某事物
例:Sitting on the balcony, you can enjoy the food as well as the beautiful scenery to the fullest.
  
13. The winding path led through graceful meadows, past wildflowers, and along a rippling stream-all of which the young man missed as he churned within, preoccupied and boiling with anxiety.(見第38行)
(1) lead v. [I] 通往;領導;領先
lead to + N 導致
lead someone to believe/think ... 誘使某人相信/認為……
例:The path leads through the forest.
  Hard work leads to success.
  The stockbroker led me to believe that it was a worthwhile investment.
(2) as = while 當……時
(3) boil v. [I] 沸騰;憤怒至極
例: Seeing the sales figures this month, the boss boiled with rage.

14. The old man breathed in the aroma, listened to the bubbling brook, and pulled the ox to a halt.(見第43行)
(1) breathe in 吸入→ breathe out 呼出
(2) bubble v. [I] 產生泡泡;(因流動而)發出咕嚕咕嚕的聲音
例:We could smell the chowder before we heard it bubbling in the pot.

15. "This is the last trip I'm taking with you," snapped his son.(見第46行)
(1) the last + N,常用來表達對某事物或某人的一種強烈的負面情緒。
例:He is the last person I want to work with.
(2) snap v. [T, I] 怒喝;厲聲說話;啪的一聲折斷 n. [C] 啪噠聲
例:"You're late again!" the teacher snapped.
  The chopsticks broke with a snap.

16. "Why, that's the nicest thing you've said in a long time," smiled the dad.(見第49行)
(1) why在這裡當感嘆詞用,表示驚訝或不耐煩,在美式英語中較為常見。
例:Why, you look totally different.
(2) in a long time 這麼久以來;長久以來
例:For the first time in a long time I felt relaxed.

17. The night dragged slowly; the son was restless.(見第51行)
(1) drag v. [I, T] (時間等)拖長;走得很慢;(物品)在地上拖著;拖拉
drag one's feet 拖著腳步
例:The days in the hospital dragged on like years.
  Hungry and tired, Mr. Lin dragged his feet as he walked out of the office.

18. The boy looked away in anger.(見第60行)
(1) look away/up/down/inside/around 向別處/往上/往下/往裡頭/四處看
look after 照顧
look forward to + N/V-ing 期盼
look down on somebody 看不起某人
look up to somebody 尊敬某人
例:Hearing a rustling sound, I looked up and found a rare bird perching on a tree branch.
  The wife has to look after her sick husband in the hospital.
  Don't look down on/upon poor people.
(2) in anger 氣憤地
文法/句型
in + 表情緒的名詞,當副詞使用,表情緒、精神等
with + N = adv.
of + N = adj.
例:She looked at me in horror as if I were a ghost.
Please handle the box with care.
= Please handle the box carefully.
A dictionary is of great help to language learners.
 = A dictionary is very helpful to language learners.

19. It was almost eight o'clock that morning by the time the other cart was back on the road.(見第62行)
(1)「by + 時間」表示在某個時間點之前。
例:He said he would be back by dinnertime.

20. Suddenly, a great flash split the sky.(見第63行)
(1) flash n. [C] 閃光;閃現;閃光燈 v. [I] 閃過
in a flash 一瞬間
flash into/across one's mind 閃過心頭
例:Suddenly I felt a flash of hope.
  The genie disappeared in a flash.
  An idea flashed across my mind.
(2) split v. (split, split, split, splitting) [T, I] 使裂開;分攤;分裂
例:He split the piece of wood with an ax.

21. Beyond the hills, the sky grew dark.(見第64行)
(1)beyond prep. 越過;在……的那一邊;超出……的範圍
例:He lives beyond the river.

22. "If we had hurried, we'd be almost sold out by now," grumbled his son.(見第66行)
(1) by now 現在(已經),by + 時間,代表在那個時間之前。
例:They left an hour ago, so they should be home by now.

23. "Take it easy... You'll last longer. And you'll enjoy life so much more," counselled the kind old gentleman.(見第68行)
(1)counsel v. [T] 勸告;諮商(過去式為counseled或counselled)

24. Neither of them said a word.(見第73行)
(1)neither of +複數N or pron,動詞用單數或複數皆可(複數動詞為較不正式的用法)。
例:Neither of my best friends is/are going steady with anyone.

25. They turned their cart around and began to roll slowly away from what had once been the city of Hiroshima.(見第77行)
(1) turn (something/somebody) around 轉向;掉頭
turn to 轉向……求助
turn down 拒絕
turn up 出現
turn over (使)翻覆
例:Turn around and let me look at your back.
  When I get in trouble, I turn to my parents.
  When the singer finally turned up, the fans almost went crazy.
  The huge waves turned the boat over.
(2) roll v. [T](使)有輪子的車輛前進;滾動
例:A rolling stone gathers no moss.

VOCABULARY

3. load something onto/into (a vehicle) 上貨
be loaded down with something 裝載某物使負荷過重
a load off one's mind 心中憂慮的解除,心中石頭落了地
loads of/a load of 大量;許多
字尾-load表示「……的量」 busload n. 公車的載客量 workload n. 工作量
例:Load the produce into the van.   
Students nowadays are loaded down with schoolwork.   
When I heard the typhoon would not come to Taiwan, it was a load off my mind.   
You can find loads of useful information at this website.

5. shopping/baggage cart 購物∕行李推車
put the cart before the horse 本末倒置
例:I think many parents in Taiwan are putting the cart before the horse by urging their children to learn English before they can master Chinese.

6. productive adj. 多產的;生產力強的
producer n. [C] 生產者;製作人
agricultural/dairy produce 農/酪農產品
例:My mom can produce a delicious meal from the simplest ingredients.   
The R&D department was not very productive last month. What went wrong?   
Steven Spielberg is not only the director but the producer of this movie.

7. patch something up 修理某物(尤指草草修理);解決(紛爭)
例:They finally patched up their differences and were able to get along again.

8. hitch n. [C] 故障;障礙
hitchhike v. [I] 搭便車旅行
without a hitch 沒有閃失,非常成功
hitch up 向上拉
例:I hitched a ride with John to the party.   
Everyone knows hitchhiking is not a safe way to travel.   
His concert went off without a hitch.   
She hitched up her sock when she felt it slipping down.

9. itch n. [sing.] 癢;渴望
be itching to V/for N 迫切想要……
例:Mom, I have an itch on my back. Could you scratch it for me?   
At this time of the day, everybody is itching to go home.

11. fidget n. [usu. pl.] 煩躁;坐立不安
fidgety adj. 坐立不安的,煩躁的
get the fidgets 坐立不安,煩躁
例:He's such a fidgety person, both physically and mentally. It's hard for him to sit still and even harder to quiet down his mind.   
I always get the fidgets during long lectures.

12. fume at somebody or something 對某人或某事發火
fume over something 對某事發火
fume with rage 勃然大怒
例:Mr. Lin fumed with rage at our delay.

13. forked adj. 分岔的
例:A bird with a forked tail landed on his shoulder.

14. wind [waInd] v. (wind, wound, wound) [I] 上發條
wind (something) up 結束
wind up 最後……(= end up)
例: Have you wound the antique clock?   
Before I wind up, do you have any questions?   
We planned to go shopping, but we wound up sitting in a café chatting away the whole afternoon.
19. within reach (of) 在可及……的範圍內
within (a) budget 在預算內
within sight 在視線範圍內
within walking distance 走路可到的距離
例:The hotel lies within easy reach of a train station and bus stops.   
I tried to keep my spending within my budget during the trip.   
We walked for three hours, and the hotel finally came within sight.   
Is the restaurant within walking distance or should we take a taxi?

20. be preoccupied with 滿腦子都是……
例:Christie is preoccupied with making money to buy a new house.

21. twilight year 晚年,遲暮之年
例:Doris still had an active social life in her twilight years.

22. a fruity aroma 果香
a delicious aroma 引人垂涎的香味
aromatic herbs 香草
香氣的區別:
aroma 多半指食物或飲料發出的香味
例:the aroma of freshly baked cookies
scent (天然的)香味;香水 = perfume
例:the scent of flowers the perfume of roses
fragrance 香味;香水
例:the fragrance of shampoo

23. bring something to a halt 使停頓
come to a halt 停止
(a vehicle) screech to a halt 緊急煞車
例:The project was brought to a halt due to lack of money.   
A carriage came to a halt at the gate.   
The bus screeched to a halt when the driver saw the motorcycle rushing out of the lane.

25. stare v. [I, T](因驚訝、害怕或若有所思而)盯著看
peer v. [I](因看不清楚而靠近)細看
gaze v. [I](因為驚訝或若有所思而)盯著看,(深情地)凝視
例:The prince stood alone on the balcony and stared into space.   
The lost hiker peered nervously at the map and tried to find the right path.   
In the picture, the bride and groom are gazing lovingly at each other.

27. ditch v. [T] 丟掉;甩掉
例:Joe has just ditched his girlfriend.

29. sometimes adv. 有時候
some time 一段時間
例:Sometimes I like to eat out.   
I wish I could afford to spend some time here to learn more about this city.

30. grumble v. [I] 喃喃抱怨;肚子餓發出的咕嚕聲
grumble n. [C] 抱怨
例:My stomach grumbled loudly in the middle of the meeting, and everybody burst out laughing.

31. devastated adj. 完全被毀滅的;崩潰的
devastating charm/smile/beauty 致命的魅力/迷死人的笑容/傾國傾城的美貌
例:When they returned to their village, they found it devastated.   
The old woman was devastated upon hearing the bad news.

IDIOMS AND PHRASES

1. take something seriously 認真看待某事
take something calmly 冷靜看待某事
take defeat well 坦然接受失敗
take something lightly 輕忽某事
例:He takes people's advice seriously.   
The president took the crisis calmly.   
A true sportsman always plays fair and takes defeat well.   
The government took the new disease too lightly at first.

3. stop off(at/in + 地方)在中途短暫停留
stop over 途中在某地過夜,盤桓數日
例:Please stop off at the grocery store on your way home and get some milk.   
We'll stop over in Malaysia for one night on our way to Turkey.

5. take turns V-ing/to V 輪流做……
it is one's turn to V 輪到……做……
例:Let's take turns doing the housework.   
It's your turn to take out the garbage today.

2010年11月21日 星期日

號外! 號外!

Here are the heroes and heroines. They are volleyball winners.

306

2010年11月19日 星期五

設計問卷訪談注意事項

先開Moodle
再進入 http://203.72.187.247/moodle/file.php/14/Methodology/index.htm

Watch and listen to the video so that you will know how to design questions for your questionnaire or interview.

2010年11月13日 星期六

L7 文法練習解答

L7 文法練習解答P.154-155
一. 限定 (不加逗點, 若無此限定形容詞子句,語意會不完整) VS. 非限定(加逗點, 唯一的那個人,是補述用法)

非限定
2. Diana, who I spoke to in the morning, is very interested in our project.
═ Diana, to whom I spoke in the morning, is very interested in our project.
限定
3. I need a secretary who has a college degree and can speak fluent Spanish.
4. The painting (which) you bought at a high price last week is a fake.

二. 假設語氣+倒裝
2. Had I known your telephone number, I would have called you last night. (屬於”與過去事實相反”的假設)
※3. You might have been killed had the rescue team not arrived in time. (屬於”與過去事實相反”的假設)
4. Should the train be delayed, please let me know at once. (屬於”對未來不確定強烈的假設) 解釋為: 萬一
註:  假設
解釋為: 若不是
Without / But for / + N(片), S + would/should... (看是現在或過去的假設),         
             片語
 If it were not for N(片), S + whould/should + V..      =  (倒裝): Were it not for N(片), S + whould/should + V..  
           子句
If it had not been for N(片), S + whould/should have +pp.. = (倒裝): Had it not for N(片), S + whould/should have +pp..

           子句



5. Had it not been for your help, I would not have been able to fix my bike. (屬於”與過去事實相反”的假設)

L6 文法練習部分

L6 P.132文法練習

3. Were it not for your support, I couldn’t be able to cope with difficulties.

→原句為:If it were not for your support, I couldn’t be able to cope with difficulties.

(此句屬於”與現在事實相反”的假設)

4. If it were not for the Internet, we couldn’t find the information we need so quickly.

→倒裝:Were it not for the Internet, we couldn’t find the information we need so quickly. (此句屬於”與現在事實相反”的假設)

6. Had it not been for the kind lady, I might have been lost forever.

→原句為:If it had not been for the kind lady, I might have been lost forever.

(此句屬於”與過去事實相反”的假設)

7. If it had not been for that kind student, I wouldn’t have been able to pay the fare.

→倒裝:Had it not been for that kind student, I wouldn’t have been able to pay the fare. (此句屬於”與過去事實相反”的假設)

2010年11月10日 星期三

L6 + L7 文法-假設語氣+倒裝句

假設語氣 + 倒裝句

※假設語氣之時間順序:

過去完成→→→→過去式→現在式→未來式

1. 對未來不確定的假設

If + S + beV/V現在/助V, S + 一般V/助V + V

可根據事實而改變

※假設語氣沒有未來式, 所以現在式代替未來式

Ex: (1) If I study hard, I will get good grades.

倒裝

1.去If

2.一般V找助V幫助 (如果本身有beV/助V就直接提至S之前)→類似疑問句寫法

3.主要子句不改變, 改變的是有If那一句

疑問句

I am a good student. → Am I a good student?

I study English. → Do I study English?

I can study hard. → Can I study hard?

假設+倒裝句型

If + S + beV/V現在/助V, S + 一般V/助V + V

BeV + S + ~, S + 一般V/助V + V

Do + S + V, S + 一般V/助V + V

助V + S + V, S + 一般V/助V + V

句字改寫

(1)If I am a good student, I can get a lollipop.

Am I a good student, I can get a lollipop.

(2)If I study hard, I will get good grades.

Do I study hard, I will get good grades.

(3)If the train should be delayed, please let me know at once.

Should the train be delayed, please let me know at once.

2. 與現在事實相反

If + S + were/V-ed, S + would/might/could/should + V

※beV一律用were, 即使是I, she, he

Ex:(1)If I were you, I would kiss her.

(2)If I kissed her, she might love me more.

假設+倒裝句型

If + S + were/V-ed, S + would/might/could/should + V

Were + S + ~, S + would/might/could/should + V

Did + S + V, S + would/might/could/should + V

句子改寫

(1) If I were you, I would kiss her.

Were I you, I would kiss her.

(2)If I were a nurse, I should be patient.

Were I a nurse, I should be patient.

(3)If I kissed her, she might love me more.

Did I kiss her, she might love me more.

3. 與過去事實相反

If + S + had + p.p, S + would/might/could/should + have + p.p

Ex:(1)If I had enough money, I would have bought this house.

假設+倒裝句型

If + S + had + p.p, S + would/might/could/should + have + p.p

Had + S + p.p, S + would/might/could/should + have + p.p

句子改寫

(1) If I had had enough money, I would have bought this house.

Had I had enough money, I would have bought this house.

(2)If I had studied hard, I could have passed the exam.

Had I studied hard, I could have passed the exam.

※(1)You might have been killed if the rescue team had not arrived in time.

→You might have been killed had the rescue team not arrived in time.

(2)I might have been incredulous if I had not been accustomed to such responses.

→I might have been incredulous had I not been accustomed to such responses.

L5 文法-倒裝句

倒裝句

1. 地方副詞:

1→2→3=3→2→1

Ex:(1) The bus comes here.= Here comes the bus.

              1          2      3            3      2       1

(2) A book is on the desk.On the desk is a book.

          1     2        3                      3         2      1

※ S(主詞)為代N, 1→2→3=3→1→2

Ex:(1) I  am here.Here I  am.

          1   2    3            3   1    2

(2) Here you are.→翻譯為:1.你在這裡 2.你要的東西在這裡

(3) I lived somewhere (inside that good device).

Somewhere (inside that good device) I lived.

→假如地方副詞後面有一個形容詞or形容詞子句,記得要連同副詞一起搬走

2. 時間副詞:then那個時候

Ex: The softly spoken answer came then. = Then came the softly spoken answer.

                         1                    2      3            3     2                    1

clip_image003

3. 否定副詞:否定副詞放句首,句子倒裝

(1) 否定副詞:only, never, little, few, hardly, scarcely, barely, seldom, no sooner~ than~…

Ex:(1) I never study English.= Never do I study English.

(2)I hardly loved him.= Hardly did I love him.

(3)I have never been to U.S.A.= Never have I been to U.S.A.

(4)He had no sooner entered the room than I found myself~ (no sooner than一~就~)

No sooner had he entered the room than I found myself~

He had entered the room no sooner than I found myself~

No sooner than I found myself~ had he entered the room.

(5)I realized how much she meant to me only at that very important.

Only at that very important did I realize how much she meant to me.

※注意”否定副詞”是否有修飾後面的字,如果有,一定要一起搬家

4. 也:

肯定:S + beV/助V, too.= So + beV/助V + S

Ex:(1) I am a good student. My brother is, too. (My brother is a good student, too.)

          I am a good student. = So is my brother.

(2)I study English. Curly does, too. (Curly studies English, too.)

                                                                 為一般V,所以簡答時用助動詞”does”表示

     I study English. = So does Curly.

否定:S + beV not/助V not, either. = Neither + beV/助V + S

                                                           本身為否定

Ex:(1) I am not a good student. My brother isn’t, either. (My brother isn’t a good student.)

(2)I am not a good student. = Neither is my brother.

(3)I don’t study English. Curly doesn’t study, either. (Curly doesn’t study English, either.)

(4)I don’t study English. = Neither does Curly.

2010年11月7日 星期日

B5L7 Three Days to See

Reading
1. I have often thought it would be a blessing if each human being were stricken blind and deaf for a few days at some time during his early adult life.(見第1行)
(1)it would be a blessing ... early adult life是與「現在事實相反」的假設語氣。
文法/句型
與「現在事實相反」的假設語氣
If + S + were/Vpt, S + would/should/could/might + V
例:If I were a rich man, I would buy a bighouse for my parents and take them to travel around the world.
If I had a computer like yours, I would be very happy.
(2) strike v. [T] (strike, struck, struck/stricken) 打;衝撞;攻擊
stricken「人或動物等突然遭受疾病、災禍、盲啞侵襲」
(3) a few「一些」接可數N
例:a few friends
(4) at some time 「在某一時刻」。some是指不明確的「某一」,而非數量上的「一些」。例:I came here for some reason.(基於某種理由我來到此地)
I do have some good reasons for doing this.(做這件事我的確是理由充分)

2. Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight; silence would teach him the joys of sound.(見第3行)
(1) 這一句承接上一句的假設語氣, him指的是each human being ,兩句都用would + V。
(2)make 使……
文法/句型
make + O + OC(V, Adj, N)
例:The naughty boy made his mother crazy.
(3) appreciative adj. 有欣賞能力的;讚賞的
be appreciative (of sth.)(對……)感激的
例:I'm very appreciative of your financial and emotional support during the last few years.
(4) sight 視覺(= vision)

3. I might have been incredulous had I not been accustomed to such responses, for long ago I became convinced that the seeing see little.(見第8行)
(1) I might have been ... such rersponses是與「過去事實相反」的假設語氣並倒裝
文法/句型
與「過去事實相反」的假設語氣
If + S + had + p.p. ..., S + would/could/might/should + have + p.p.
倒裝→ Had + S + p.p. ..., S + would/should/could/might + have + p.p. ....
例:If he had been more careful, the accident would not have happened.
→ Had he been more careful, the accident would not have happened.
(2) be/become convinced that + S + V 相信……
例:I'm convinced that I can do the job well.
(3) the seeing 明眼人
the + 某些形容詞,可以指某一類人或物。
the rich富人 the blind盲人
the dead死人 the deaf失聰的人
(4) little adv. 少的,修飾動詞see
例:He sleeps very little.
little的相反詞是much
例:My father loves my mother very much.

4. I, who cannot see, find hundreds of things to interest me through mere touch.(見第12行)關代修飾I (非限定)
(1) through prep.(= by means of)藉著
例:Power grabbed through violence will not last long.

5. In spring I touch the branches of trees hopefully in search of a bud, the first sign of awakening Nature after her winter's sleep.(見第16行)
(1) in search of 尋找……
(2) "the first sign of awakening Nature after her winter's sleep" 是前面bud的同位語

6. I am delighted to have the cool waters of a brook rush through my open fingers.(見第19行)
(1) be delighted to + V 感到高興去(做……)
例:She is delighted to have a new roommate.
(2) have的使役用法
文法/句型
have + O + V(此動作對O來說是主動時)使…做…
例:They had Tommy do a lot of work without paying him a cent.
have + O + p.p.(此動作對O來說是被動時)使…被…
My father had his car washed and polished at the gas station yesterday.

7. To me a lush carpet of pine needles or spongy grass is more welcome than the most luxurious Persian rug.(見第21行)
(1) welcome adj. 受歡迎的
例:A simple loving card is more welcome to me than an expensive gift.

8. If I can get so much pleasure from mere touch, how much more beauty must be revealed by sight.(見第24行)
(1) 修飾比較級的副詞:much、a lot、far、a great deal、a little
例:The patient feels much better today.
(2) must 表「肯定的推測」
文法/句型
must + V 表示「對現在事物肯定的推測」
例:She must be very rich. Look at the diamond necklace she wears.
must + have + p.p. 表「對過去事物肯定的推測」
例:It must have rained last night. The ground was wet this morning.


9. Yet, those who have eyes apparently see little.(見第25行)關代修飾those
(1) yet(= however)但是,然而
(2) those pron. = those people
例:God helps those who help themselves.

10. It is human, perhaps, to appreciate little that which we have and to long for that which we have not, but it is a great pity that in the world of light the gift of sight is used only as a mere convenience rather than as a means of adding fullness to life.(見第27行)
(1) it is + adj. + to + V
例:It is human to be afraid of death. We must be very brave to have the courage to face death.
(2) that which we have 我們所擁有的 that which = what
(3) long for 渴望……
(4) be used as 被當作……使用
例:It is a great pity that the new invention was used as a weapon to kill people.
(5) rather than 而不是……
例:He wanted to be an artist rather than an accountant.

11. If, by some miracle, I were granted three seeing days, I should want to see the people whose kindness and gentleness and companionship have made my life worth living.(見第32行)關代所有格,修飾the people
(1) be granted (= be given)被賜給
例:He was granted more than twenty honorary degrees.
(2) make my life worth living 使我的人生值得活下去

12. First I should like to gaze long upon the face of my dear teacher, Mrs. Anne Sullivan Macy, who came to me when I was a child and opened the outer world to me.(見第38行)關代形容Mrs. Anne Sullivan Macy(非限定)
(1) gaze upon 凝視,gaze介系詞常接at
例:He just stood there, gazing up at the clear blue sky.
(2) long adv. (= for a long time)
例:I'm sorry that I'm late. Have you been waiting long?
(3) opened the outer world to me 指Anne Sullivan帶她進入文字的世界,使她從此眼盲心不盲,耳聾心不聾。
open ... to ... 為某人開啟……(抽象的用法)
例:A storybook can open a wonderful world to children.

13. I should want not merely to see the outline of her face, so that I could cherish it in my memory, but to study that face and find in it the living evidence of the sympathetic tenderness and patience with which she accomplished the difficult task of my education.(見第42行)
(1) not merely ... but ... = not only ... but also ... 「不僅……而且……」,在這裡連接to see...和to study...
例:Gardening for me is not merely a job, but a way of life.
(2) so that ... 連接詞片語,後面所接的子句表示「目的」,意為「以便於」。
例:He got up very early so that he could catch the first bus.
(3) tenderness and patience with which she accomplished the difficult task of my education = She accomplished the difficult task of my education with sympathetic tenderness and patience.

14. I do not know what it is to see into the heart of a friend through that "window of the soul," the eye.(見第50行)虛S 真S
(1) see into 透視
(2) window of the soul 靈魂之窗,後面的the eye是其同位語。

15. I am denied that deeper understanding of them which I am sure would come through sight of them, through watching their reactions to various expressions and circumstances, through noting the immediate and fleeting reactions of their eyes and countenance.(見第56行)
(1) be denied something 被拒絕給予某物
例:The boy was denied the pleasure of playing computer games.

16. How much easier, how much more satisfying it is for you who can see to grasp quickly the essential qualities of another person by watching the subtleties of expression, the quiver of a muscle, the flutter of a hand.(見第61行)
(1) How + adj. + it + is + (for someone) + to V ....
例:How difficult it is to truly understand another person.
(2) grasp v. [T] 了解;緊握
例:I can't grasp the main point of this article about genetics.

17. Do not most of you seeing people grasp casually the outward features of a face and let it go at that?(見第65行)
(1) let it go (at that) 到此為止,不深入探索
例:Promise me you won't make the same mistake again and I'll let it go.

18. Some see more than others, but few see everything that is within the range of their vision.(見第71行)
(1) few = almost nobody語氣是否定的,不能使用a few。
(2) within the range of 在……範圍之內

19. I, who am blind, can give one hint to those who see: Use your eyes as if tomorrow you would be stricken blind.(見第73行)關代(非限定)
(1) as if 就...好像,後面經常接假設語氣子句。
例: He looked at her as if he would never see her again.

20. And the same method can be applied to other senses.(見第74行)
(1)apply ... to .../be applied to 應用於
例:You can apply this idea to your research.

21. Make the most of every sense. But of all the senses, I am sure that sight must be the most delightful.(見第79行)
(1) make the most of 好好利用……
(2) of all ... 在所有的……中
例:Of all flowers, she likes roses best.

I. Words for production

1. incredulously adv. 不肯輕信地;懷疑地
credulous adj. 輕信的,容易受騙的
be incredulous of/about sth. 不肯輕信……
例:The man laughed incredulously, not believing a word his wife said.
  George was a credulous fool to have fallen for the scam.
  Most people in the U.S. are incredulous of stories about ghosts.

3. a rough day 不順利的一天
a rough night 失眠的夜晚
a rough draft 草稿
例: I had a rough day.

4. awakening adj. 甦醒的
awaken curiosity 引起好奇心
例:It was like a miracle to see the dead desert awaken with such amazing vitality.
  They did not expect the story would awaken anyone's sympathy.

7. live in luxury 生活奢侈
例:She never dreamed of living in luxury.

8. long adv. 長久地
long face 拉長了臉(表示不樂)
have a long way to go 尚有待努力
to make a long story short 長話短說
long for 渴望
as long as 只要(連接詞片語)
before long 不久(= soon)
例:The peace between the two countries did not last long.
  As long as we continue to tolerate it, this kind of thing will happen again and again.
  Before long they got married and moved to Chicago.

9. please v. [T, I] 討好,取悅
please adv. 請
pleasant adj. 令人愉快的
pleasing adj. 令人愉快的
pleased adj. 愉快的
hard/difficult to please 很難取悅
(It's) my pleasure. 我的榮幸。(禮貌用語)
with pleasure 非常樂意(回應別人的請求)
例:Some people are so critical that almost nothing can please them.
  Take a sit, please.
  He has a pleasant personality.
  His progress in English writing was most pleasing to his teacher.
  She is pleased with the result of the contest.

10. revelation n. [U, C] 表露;洩露
例:The movie star was angry about the revelation of his private life.

11. It is apparent that .... 顯然地

14. worth n. [U] 價值
worthy adj. 值得的
worth + V-ing 值得……
be worth someone's while to do something 值得某人花時間去做某事
be worthy of trust 值得信賴
例:I'm wondering if it is worth my while to do it for only two hundred dollars.

18. able adj. 能
unable adj. 不能
enable ... to ... 使……能夠做某事
be able to + V 能夠做某事
the disabled 殘障人士
例:I am sure we are able to reach a conclusion which satisfies both sides.
  The building was designed with many conveniences for the disabled.

19. detection n. [U] 偵查
detector n. [C] 偵測器
detective novel/story 偵探小說/故事
police detective 警探
metal/smoke detector 金屬/煙霧偵測器
例:The stealth jet fighter can avoid detection by enemy radar.
  I'm reading a detective novel.

20. feel n. [sing.] 觸感,感受 v. [I] 感覺,感受
feeling n. [C] 感覺
feel it important/necessary to do something 覺得做某事很重要/有必要
feel like + N 想要
feel like + doing something 想要(做某事)
have/get a feeling that 感覺到……
例:We feel sorry about her situation.
  Do you feel like a cup of tea?
  I don't feel like going to the movie by myself.
  I suddenly got a feeling that he was not happy.

22. muscular adj. 肌肉發達的
pull a muscle 拉傷肌肉
例:Those students of gym class are tall, strong, and muscular.

25. acquaint oneself with something 認識,了解
get/become acquainted with someone 認識
a nodding acquaintance 點頭之交
例:Have you acquainted yourselves with all the rules you need to know in this camp?
  This is a good opportunity to get acquainted with each other.
  He is only a nodding acquaintance, not a close friend.

26. surrounding adj. [用在名詞前] 環繞的,周圍的
be surrounded by something 被……環繞
surround something with something 以……環繞……
例:The old castle was surrounded with very dense forests.
  A lot of people from the surrounding area come to this church on Sundays.
  She's always been surrounded by people who adore her.

27. startlingly adv. 使人震驚地
startled adj. 震驚的
it is startling to V ……很令人吃驚
be startled to V ……而感到吃驚
例:Survivors of the disaster told us startlingly sad stories.
  There was a startled expression on her face when she saw a monkey riding a bike down the street.
  It was startling to learn that nobody ever visited him in the hospital.
  I was startled to see that my ex-girlfriend would be conducting my job interview.

28. spectacles n. [pl.] 眼鏡
make a spectacle of oneself 出糗
例:My father wears a pair of silver-rimmed spectacles.
Ray made a spectacle of himself by getting drunk at the company's year-end banquet.

29. range v. [I] 涵蓋
top of the range 最好的
a wide range of 各式各樣的
range from ... to ... 涵蓋
例:They sell a wide range of electrical appliances.
  The students' ages range from 12 to 18.

30. hint v. [I, T] 提示,暗示
give/drop a hint 給暗示
a broad/heavy/strong hint 明白的提示
a gentle/subtle/vague hint 不明白的暗示
hints on sth. ……的秘訣
例:Do you know what he was hinting at?

IDIOMS AND PHRASES

1. now and then 有時候,偶爾 = (every)now and again = (every)once in a while
= from time to time
例:Every now and again I hang out with my old high school buddies.
I usually watch DVDs at home, but once in a while, I go to the movies.
My mother calls me from time to time, but I haven't seen her in a long time.

3. be accustomed to 習慣於,to是介系詞後加N, Ving
become/get/grow accustomed to something 變得習慣……
例:Adam's eyes slowly grew accustomed to the dark.

4. be worthy of 值得
be worth something 價值……
例:This antique vase must be worth a lot of money.
it is worthwhile to do something ……是值得的
例:I think it is worthwhile to buy this expensive sofa because it will look great in our living room.
it is worthwhile doing something ……是值得的
例:It is always worthwhile checking over all your answers before you hand in a test.

2010年11月5日 星期五

Greetings from Chris

Dear all,

It is Chris, who just finished having surgery and came back from the hospital. Everything goes fine with me. The medical treatment still needs to last a few months. What I feel uncomfortable is I cannot have fun with you. You know, Chris is the person who never stops. Getting together with you is especially interesting and always makes me young. Haha! Tako and Momo still make some fun for us? Do you all pay attention to the substitute teachers? Do you have fun with them? Perhaps it is lucky for you to have different kinds of teachers. I believe you can learn a lot from them.

Though I have been feeling tired, I still have some energy to read your paper. Hey, the ones who do not finish homework and the ones who do not work hard must be very careful.

Don't forget: Hmmmm... Chris is always watching you! 
PS. 讀完stress那課, 要到Moodle做討論
       專題有3組同學, 要趕快補上進度
       有任何問題, 可以善用Moodle, Course Blog及 messenger
   

2010年10月30日 星期六

L6 Handling Stress

課文重點分析
1. Perhaps so, but it is quite true. (見第1行)
(1) 這裡的 so 是指前面所提的「生活中少不了壓力讓人感到驚訝」的這件事。避免重複,故以 so 來代。
(2) 這裡的 it 是指 You need stress in your life.

2. A major challenge in this stress-filled world of today is to make the stress in your life work for you instead of against you.(見第5行)
(1) stress-filled 複合形容詞,修飾後面的 world。
(2) make為使役動詞,因此後面受詞動作為主動時接原形動詞work。
文法/句型
make + 受詞 + 原V(受詞主動動作)
My cousin made me do his math homework for him yesterday because he's bad at math.
make + 受詞 + V-p.p.(受詞被動動作)
With my poor English, I found it hard to make myself understood in the U.S.
be made + to V(主詞被動動作)
When we were young, my brother and I were made to do the dishes every evening.
(3) instead of 當「而不是……」解。
例:He stayed home instead of going out and fooling around with his friends.
 = He didn't go out and fool around with his friends; he stayed home instead.

3. So personal, in fact, that what may be relaxing to one person may be stressful to another.(見第10行)
=In fact, it is so personal that what may be relaxing to one person may be stressful to another.

4. ..., physical stress from work or exercise is not likely to cause such ailments.(見第17行)
(1) S + be (not) likely to + V ....
= It + be (not) likely that ....
看起來(不)會……;可能(不)會……;似乎(不)……的
例:It's likely to rain this afternoon.
  = It's likely that it will rain this afternoon.

5. Hans Selye, M.D., a recognized expert in the field, has defined stress as a "non-specific response of the body to a demand.(見第20行)
(1) M. D = Doctor of Medicine
(2) define ... as ... 定義……為……
文法/句型
accept/describe ... as ... 接受/描述……為/是……
diagnose ... as ... 診斷……為/是……
know/recognize/think of ... as ... 認為……是……
label/refer to ... as ... 稱……是……
treat ... as ... 把……當作……對/看待
use ... as ... 把……當作……使用
view ... as ... 把……視為……
(3) non-specific 非特定的 non-有not的意思
例:non-alcoholic(指飲料)無酒精成份的
  non-restrictive(指關係子句)非限定的
  non-smoking 禁煙的
  non-standard 不標準的;不合規格的
  non-stop adj.直達的;中途不停的 adv. 直達地;中途不停地
non-smoker n.不抽煙的人
(4) response to ... 對……的回應/回答;反應
例:I still haven't received any response to my inquiry.

6. Recognizing the early signs of distress and then doing something about them can make an important difference in the quality of your life, ....(見第25行)
(1) "Recognizing ... them" 動名詞當主詞用。
(2) do something about ... 想辦法(做)……
例:Would you please do something about it?
(3) quality of life 生活品質
standard of living 生活水準
例:A high standard of living doesn't always mean a high quality of life.

7. When stress does occur, it is important to recognize and deal with it.(見第28行)
(1) does當「真的;確實;的確」,亦可用 really 代替,但若用 really,要注意時式的變化。
例:He did come yesterday.
  = He really came yesterday.
(2) deal with處理,同義字詞:handle、cope with。
例:Just tell me how you are going to deal with the matter.

8. As you begin to understand more about how stress affects you as an individual, you will come up with your own ideas of helping to ease the tensions.(見第29行)
(1)第一個 as 是連接詞,作「當……」,第二個 as 則為介系詞,當「作為……」
例:He came in as I was talking to her.
  As a student, I feel that I should spend more time on my studies.
(2) how ... an individual 是一名詞子句(間接問句),當 about 的受詞
(3) come up with 提出……;想出……

9. Physical exercise will relieve that "uptight"feeling, relax you, and turn the frowns into smiles.(見第37行)
(1) turn (sb./sth.) into ... 把(某人/某物)變成……
例:In a flash, the monster turned into a handsome man.
(2) turn the frowns into smiles 眉開眼笑
例:After hearing so many jokes, finally our frowns were turned into smiles.

10. Learn to accept what is---for now--until such time when you can change it.(見第51行)
(1) when you can change it 此為關係副詞 when 所引導的子句修飾前面的 such time。

11. If you are irritable and tense from lack of sleep or if you are not eating correctly, you will have less ability to deal with stressful situations.(見第54行)
(1) from lack of 由於缺乏…… = for lack of, through lack of。
例:The club had to close down due to a lack of funds.
lack n. [U, sing.] 缺乏;不足;沒有v. [T, I] 缺乏
lacking adj. 缺乏的;不足的
due to/for/from lack of ... 缺少……
例:The class trip was cancelled due to lack of interest.
(2) have the/every ability to V 有能力做……
例:I believe he has the ability to take the responsibility.

12. If stress repeatedly keeps you from sleeping, you should ask your doctor for help.(見第56行)
(1) keep ... from V-ing 使無法……
例:The heavy rain kept us from having a picnic in the park.
(2) ask ... for help 求助於……
例:Since I am new in this city, I will have to ask the police for help.

13. Schedule time for both work and recreation. (見第58行)
(1)schedule v.將……列入時間表,常用在被動句型 n. 進度表;日程表;行程表
sth. be scheduled for + 時間
例:The meeting is scheduled for next Tuesday.
sb./sth. be scheduled to V
例:I'm scheduled to arrive in Taipei at three o'clock tomorrow morning.
behind schedule 進度落後
ahead of schedule 進度超前
on schedule 按進度;準時
例:Don't worry. Everything is on schedule.

14. ...; you need a break from your daily routine to just relax and have fun.(見第59行)
(1) daily routine 每日的例行公事、工作

15. One way to keep from getting bored, sad, and lonely is to go where it's all happening.(見第61行)
(1)keep from V-ing/N 避開……;克制……
例:I just couldn't keep from laughing when she told me what had happened on her way home.

16. Instead of feeling sorry for yourself, get involved and become a participant.(見第63行)
(1) feel sorry for oneself 自哀自怨
例:John often feels sorry for himself, and that's why he is not happy.
(2) get involved 參與;介入
get involved with + 人
get involved in + 事件
例:Try to get involved with the people around you once in a while.
  I never thought that you'd have gotten involved in such an event.

17. You will be on your way to making new friends and enjoying new activities.(見第67行)
(1) be on one's/the way to + V-ing 在進行中;接近
例:The couple are on their way to solving their marital problems.
be on the/its way (某事)即將來臨,即將發生
例:The government fears a recession is on the way.
on one's/the way home/to +地方 在……的路上
例:On the way home I bumped into my ex-girlfriend.
  I ran out of gas on my way to work this morning.

18. Do other people upset you---particularly when they don't do things your way?(見第75行)
(1) do ... one's way 以某人的方式做……
例:Sometimes we just can't do things our way. We have to respect the needs of other people.

19. Unfortunately, many people try to relax at the same pace that they lead the rest of their lives. (見第100行)
(1) at the same pace以同樣的步調,pace 的搭配介係詞是 at。
pace of life 生活步調
at one's own pace 以自己最(適合)的速度、步調……
keep pace with 與……步調一致;不落後於……
例:The pace of life in the big cities is so fast that many people feel stressed out.
  People can do well at their own pace.
  He works very hard to keep pace with others.
(2) lead ... life 過……生活
例:Since his retirement, Mr. Blair has been leading a quiet life.

20. ..., tune out your worries about time, productivity, and "doing right."You will find satisfaction in just being, without striving. (見第101行)
(1) tune out 忽視
例:Learn to tune out surrounding noise and distractions.
(2) being = existence 存在

21. If the stress in your life seems insurmountable, you may find it beneficial to see a mental health counselor.(見第106行) 虛O.
真O.
(1) S + find it + adj. (for + N) to + V .... 意為「發現做……是……」。
例:I find it wonderful to have someone to talk to.
(2) be beneficial to 有益的;有利的
例:Regular habits are beneficial to our health.

VOCABULARY
I. Words for production
1. at the first/earliest opportunity 儘早 (= as soon as possible)
a golden opportunity 絕佳的機會
Opportunity makes the thief. 勿使人有機可趁(例如財不露白)。
例:My brother said he would teach the rude waiter a lesson at the first opportunity.
  Simon is hoping to leave the meeting at the earliest opportunity.

2. mental age 心智年齡
mental hospital 精神病院
mental illness/disease/disorder 精神疾病
mental state 精神狀態
例:Anyone who is mentally ill should consult a specialist.
  Tom's a thirty-year-old man, but his mental age is only ten.

4. major n. [C] 主修課程;主修……的人 (~ major);(美國陸空軍等)少校;v. [I] 主修
Major League Baseball (美國)職棒大聯盟 (= MLB)
major general (美國陸空軍等)少將 (= Maj. Gen.)
例:There's a major problem with parking in Taipei.
  Alex's major in college was chemical engineering.
  Tina is an English major.
  Major Winters fought bravely in World War II and earned many medals.
  My sister's majoring in computer programming.
  In this town, Buddhists are the majority.

5. personal digital assistant 個人數位助理 (= PDA)
personal organizer 私人記事本;電子記事本
personal pronoun 人稱代名詞
例:A personal organizer can be a small book or a small computer in which you can record information.
  "I," "you," and "they" are all personal pronouns.

6. executive n. [C] 主管人員;adj. 執行的,行政(上)的
execute v. [T] 執行;處死
execution n. [U] 執行;[U, C] 處死,死刑
chief executive officer 總裁,執行長 (= CEO)
the Executive Yuan (中華民國的)行政院
例:They drew up and executed a plan to reduce automobile emissions.
  The plan was really good, but its execution was poor.

8. produce n. [集合稱] 農產品(尤指新鮮蔬果)
increase/improve/raise/boost productivity 提高生產力
be in production 生產中
mass production 量產
production line 生產線,作業線 (= assembly line)
例:Intense competition drives companies to improve their productivity.
Mom always buys fresh produce at the local market.

9. be upset with sb. 生某人的氣
have/get an upset stomach 腸胃不適
例:I'm really upset with Sophia. She stood me up last night.

10. expertly adv. 熟練地;專業地
expertness n. [U] 熟練;專門
expertise n. [U] 專門技術或知識
an expert on/in/at (doing) sth. ……的專家
expertise in (doing) sth. ……的專門技術或知識
例:The play was so expertly performed that I couldn't believe the actors were all college students.
Her business expertise helped her to get the job.
Leonardo da Vinci was an expert in many fields.
He has expertise in running department stores.

12. demanding adj. 要求嚴格的;苛求的;費力的
supply and demand 供給與需求
in demand 有需要的;銷路好的
例:Mrs. Smith is a very demanding teacher.
  Electricity is in greater demand during the summer months.

13. prolong v. [T] 延長;拉長
例:Since we are having such a good time here, we decide to prolong our stay by another week.

14. tensely adv. 緊張地;僵硬地
tense n. [C, U] (文法的)時態
be/get tensed up 變得緊張、不安
例:The boy stood tensely on stage, forgetting all his lines.
  Using the correct verb tense in English is a problem for many students in Taiwan.
  Don't get so tensed up. Take a deep breath and relax.

17. limited adj. 受限的;有限的;缺乏(能力/獨立性/創造性)的
limiting adj. 限制的;妨礙進步的
upper/lower limit 上/下限
within limits 在限度內;適度地
know/learn one's limits了解自己權力的極限
例:My ability to write English is very limited.
  It can be very limiting for a vegetarian to go to an ordinary restaurant.
  I can help you within limits.
  You can't simply spend money without limit.
  We all must learn our limits.

18. irritate v. 使惱怒,使煩躁
irritating adj. 惱人的,令人煩躁的
irritated adj. 感到惱怒的,覺得煩躁的
irritation n. [U] 惱怒,煩躁
例:It really irritates me when my neighbor practices the violin late at night.
  Mosquitoes on a hot summer night can be very irritating.
  He was getting irritated by the little boy's endless questions.
  Paul tried to hide his irritation when his girlfriend was an hour late for their
date.

20. routine adj. 例行的
routinely adv. 例行地
routine check/job/operation 例行檢查/工作/手術
例:There's no problem with your baggage. This is just a routine check.
Airline passengers are routinely checked at customs.

21. participation n. [U] 參加
participate in 參加……
例:All the villagers participated enthusiastically in the traditional religious
ceremony.
Dick's participation in the demonstration worried his wife.

22. cooperative adj. 合作的
in cooperation with 與……合作
例:Tom is a polite and cooperative student.
  The high-tech company worked in close cooperation with the military to develop
new weapons.

23. strain v. [T, I] 使緊張;拉傷,扭傷;努力,竭盡全力
strained adj. 緊張的,擔心的
例:I strained my back the other day when I was moving a heavy chair.
  
24. acute/deep/great/intense anxiety 非常憂慮
be anxious about sth. 擔心某事
be anxious for sb./ sth. 擔心某人;渴望某物
be anxious to do sth. 渴望做某事
例:The people of the city are anxious about water pollution.
We are so anxious for you. If you need any help, just ask.
The actor is anxious to improve his image.
He was very anxious for me to stay, but I had to go home.

26. turmoil n. [U] 混亂,動蕩不安
economic /political/ turmoil 經濟動蕩/政治動亂/
in (a) turmoil 陷入混亂
例:With two major parties fighting against each other, the whole country is in a state of political turmoil.
Hubert stared at his girlfriend, his thoughts in turmoil.

27. tranquil adj. 平靜的;安寧的;平穩的
tranquilize v. [T] 使平靜;使安寧
tranquilizer n. [C] 鎮靜劑,安定劑
例:I really enjoy the tranquil life of the country, and that's why I always go there
when I have a holiday.
  The doctor had to use some medicine to tranquilize the hysterical patient.
  The poor woman has been taking tranquilizers since her only child died.

28. prescription drugs/medication(s) 處方藥
prescription for sth. ……(藥物)的處方
prescribe sb. sth. 開某藥給某人
prescribe ... for ... 開……(藥物)以治療……(疾病)
例:He went to see a doctor to get a prescription for sleeping pills.
The doctor prescribed some drugs for her stomach pains.

29. on temporary display 臨時展出
temporary work/worker 臨時工作/工人
temporary arrangement/measure/solution 臨時安排/措施/解決辦法
例:My father is a temporary worker who goes from one office to another.

30. strategic adj. 戰略的
strategy for doing sth. ……的計劃
strategy to do sth. ……的計劃
例:That city is of great strategic importance, so our army must take it.
The government set up a strategy for cracking down on kidnapping.
We need to come up with a better strategy to attract people to our concert.

IDIOMS AND PHRASES
7. take/have priority over ... 優先於……,比……重要
例:This task is very important, so it should have priority over your other work.

9. first of all 首先,第一
例:There are several things we have to do. First of all, we need to decide who is in charge here.
at first 最初
例:I didn't like her at first, but as I got to know her better, I fell in love with her.
from the (very) first 從最初一開始
例:Monica has been lying to me from the very first; she wasn't actually single when we met.

11. tune in 收聽廣播節目,收看電視節目
例:Thank you for watching the show. Please tune in at the same time tomorrow.
tune in to 轉到……頻道,收看、收聽……節目
例:If you ever tune in to that illegal channel again, I will remove the TV set from your room.
stay tuned 停留同一個頻道,別轉台
例:Stay tuned. We'll be right back after the commercial break.

2010年10月29日 星期五

Clarification of the Questions in Lesson 5

圖片來源網站getpowers.com
1. When Paul was young, he did not know it was an information operator. He thought there was a genie that lived in the box, so he called it "Information Please."


2. Paul did not understand what the operator said when he hurt his finger in the childhood. He said he did not feel comforted. He felt better because he could talk to someone. That was why he did not cry until the operator talked to him.

3. The sentence Sally gave to Paul means when God closes a door, He will open a window for you. That means no matter how difficult he encounters, he still has a hope in life.

2010年10月28日 星期四

Love You

Dear Chris,

我們一起努力面對!我們為我們自己的未來努力, 你要為你自己的身體努力^^

奮鬥! 戰鬥! 堅持到底! 一定要有信心!

You have to believe yourself and say "I will be ok!"

以前的你,無時無刻拼命地付出心血,現在的你,只是需要休息而已!

"休息是為了走更長遠的路"

休息完了,再次迎面世界優,再繼續為自己的人生,紀錄每天生活的點點滴滴^^

Go! Go! Go!

2010年10月26日 星期二

中小學專題式網頁競賽

作品參考: http://210.243.21.2/~creation3/
This is what we will do next semester. Take a look!

臺北市第8屆中小學專題式網頁競賽實施計畫草案
一、辦理目的
(一)鼓勵中小學生以專題研究、團隊合作、實地訪查、調查訪問等方式,探索地方人文與環境,並運用網際網路作為表達溝通的工具。
(二)經由網際網路向全球展現臺北市資訊、環境、鄉土教育與地方采風的成果。
(三)結合教育單位、家庭、地方社區與民間企業共同推動資訊、環境、與鄉土教育。
(四)結合資訊、網路教育的內涵,培養未來新世代與全世界接軌的視野與能力,並藉由競賽的過程,深入關心鄉土環境教育,落實中小學校資訊、網路及本土教育教學。

五、競賽分組
(一)參賽組別
分為國小組、國中組、高中職組等三組。
(二)參賽作品類別
各組隊伍應從下列6大類別主題擇一參賽,書面報名參賽作品類別確定後,不得再行更改:
1.人物領袖:介紹名人或明星,如政治人物、作家、藝術家、演員、企業家,或具有特殊事蹟的人物等。
2.社團企業:介紹社團或特殊族群,如志工、樂團、教會、原住民、外籍配偶等,或是地方企業或組織,如政府機關、商店、大眾運輸、電臺等。
3.觀光資源:介紹當地觀光景點、歷史古蹟,例如旅遊勝地、廟宇古厝、夜市商圈等。
4.特產特色:介紹地方特產特色,如食物、手工藝品、農作物、台灣精品、年節祭典等。
5.體育藝文:介紹地方音樂、戲曲、舞蹈、美術、書畫等藝文活動,或民俗體育、運動或戶外休閒活動的發展現況等。
6.其他議題:介紹環境教育、生態保育或其他教育相關議題。
(三)注意事項:參賽主題需訂定與臺澎金馬本地有關的題材為限,以臺北市相關議題為優先。

六、作品規格
(一)參賽作品以網頁形式呈現,內容得包括網頁、圖片、動畫、影片等,但必須能以網頁瀏覽器讀取。
(二)作品內容至少應包括:
1.專題簡報網頁:包括研究計畫、內容摘要、隊員基本資料等。
2.專題作品網頁:研究主題、研究內容、過程及結果、研究日誌、心得感想等。
以上內容之呈現方式可自行發揮。
(三)作品中不得包含ASP、PHP或其他伺服器端執行程式,並注意不可有電腦病毒。
(四)作品必須燒錄於光碟繳交,且首頁名稱為index.htm;作品總容量不設限,請慎選檔案內容,與主題無關檔案請勿放置於作品光碟中,檔案內容安排將納入評分依據。檔案如未依規定命名而造成作品無法正常瀏覽,或檔案名稱無法辨識者,由各隊自行負責。
(五)作品所有內容均應放置於光碟繳交,不得用超連結方式將資料放置於其他網站。
(六)如違反上述作品規格,由評審視情節情重,酌予扣分。

七、競賽時程
(一)報名時間:
1.請於即日起至12月31日期間,逕至本競賽網站線上填表報名,將報名表(如附件一)列印並完成核章,免備文於12月31日前送達南港高工圖書資訊處(地址:11579臺北市南港區興中路29號,傳真機:27885154);未於規定時間完成報名之隊伍,其作品不予受理。
2.研究過程中,指導老師、隊員、作品名稱如有異動(不含參賽類別之異動),得於2011年2月25日以前,重新填寫報名表並完成核章後,送交南港高工圖書資訊處,逾期不予受理。
(二)作品繳交期限:
1.專人送件:請於2011年2月25日中午12時前,將作品光碟送達南港高工圖書資訊處。
2.郵寄交件:請於2011年2月25日前寄達南港高工圖書資訊處,日期以郵戳為憑。
為維持競賽公平性,逾期交件一律不予受理。
(三)成績公布:預定於2011年4月1日公告成績。

2010年10月24日 星期日

Question about L5

Chris, please help me.  I didn’t figure out the sentence. In line 54, why was it that birds should sing so beautifully and bring joy to whole families, only to end as a heap of feathers feet up, on the bottom of the cage?   Although I read the key poin you wrote, I still didn’t understand the meaning of the sentence. Thank you.

-->Why should birds that sing beautifully and make whole families happy have to die and end up lying with their feet up in the air, on the bottom of the cage?
為什麼能唱出那麼優美歌曲,且帶給全家人快樂的鳥,結果卻變成兩腳朝上的一團羽毛躺在鳥籠底部呢?
the sentence underlined refers to "it" (同位語)

2010年10月21日 星期四

Answers to the Midterm Exam (Project Learning)

1. What is Project Learning?
Project Learning is a course that offers you a chance to go beyond what you know and to think and incorporate ideas by others, and to submit your integrated papers. To get involved in this course, you will write a detailed study of a subject. Next, you will access the Internet, to check out books from the library, and perhaps to interview several people to discover information or reach a new understanding. Then, to present your integrated works, you will need to polish your writing ability and presentation skill. Lastly, your project will take place in groups. In other words, when you are evaluated, it is largely in relation to your contribution to the project work. Wait! Here is the most important thing: self-studying and asking questions are the major keys. If you don’t study and ask, you will never learn!


2. Why should high school students need to learn Project Learning?
It is a required course whose purpose is to develop students' ability of creation and integration. That is, it helps students to develop the problem-solving ability, to enhance independent learning and cooperative learning attitude, to encourage critical thinking about the world, to integrate what students have learned into works, to build up the skills and requirements of doing research at college or in the future career.  Meanwhile, while doing the research project, students can care about the society and even the world. 
Research Project can be made more enjoyable and productive through individual and cooperative effort. For you, research techniques are a product of experience rather than formal training because this course helps you experience methods of discovery, critical thinking, logical analyses, and problem-solving and even reach the demands of the community.
 
3. The criteria of the introduction of the research paper:
a. Motivation (Background)
b. Research questions (or hypotheses)
c. Methods
d. Purposes
e. Expected findings (hypotheses)

2010年10月17日 星期日

Lesson 5 Information Please (詢問台)

圖片來源: http://grumpyoldgits.org/contactus.aspx

課文重點分析
1. I remember well the polished oak case fastened to the wall on the lower stair landing.(見第4行)
(1) remember well 意為「記得很清楚」,亦可說成 remember clearly
remember vividly 記憶猶新
remember vaguely依稀記得
(2) fastened to the wall on the lower stair landing 此為一分詞片語修飾前面的 the polished oak case。此片語是由形容詞子句 which was fastened to the wall on the lower stair landing轉換而來的。

2. I was too little to reach the telephone, but used to listen with fascination when my mother talked to it.(見第9行)
(1) too ... to + V 意為「太……以致不能……」。
(2) reach 在此意為「伸手去拿……」。
例:We are not tall enough to reach the ball on the roof.
(3) used to 意為「過去……;過去習慣於……」。用法: used to + V ...
例:My father used to smoke. (意思是現在不抽煙了。)
(4) with fascination 意為「著迷地」。當副詞用,修飾動詞 listen,亦可以 fascinatingly取代,介系詞 + 名詞 = 副詞,同類其他用詞可參看本課的 Word Power。

3. Then I discovered that somewhere inside that wonderful device lived an amazing person....(見第13行)
(1) ...somewhere inside that wonderful device lived an amazing person.... 為一倒裝句,原句為 an amazing person lived somewhere inside that wonderful device。
(2) amazing adj. 令人驚訝的
amaze v. [T] 使驚訝
amazement n. [U] 驚訝
to one’s amazement 令……訝異
例:It is amazing to see so many people waiting in line to watch this movie.
  He amazed everyone by winning the speech contest.
  To everyone’s amazement, Peter dropped out of school.

4. Amusing myself at the tool-bench in the basement, I whacked my finger with a hammer.(見第19行)
(1)”Amusing myself at the tool-bench in the basement,....”為一分詞構句。此句是由副詞子句”When I was amusing myself at the tool-bench in the basement,....”轉化而來的。
(2) amuse oneself 意為「自娛、消遣、取樂」。
例:How do you usually amuse yourself during your free time?
  Small children like to amuse themselves playing hide-and-seek.

5. ..., but there didn’t seem to be much use crying because there was no one home to offer sympathy.(見第21行)
(1) there didn’t seem to be much use crying 此句意為「哭似乎沒多大用處」。

文法/句型
There is no use + V-ing ....,意為「做……沒用」。
= It is no use + V-ing ....
= It is useless + to V ....
there後方除了加上be動詞之外,還可以加上「seem/appear/happen/tend等連綴動詞 + to be」或「助動詞 + be」等。

文法/句型
there + seem/appear/happen/tend/... + to be
There seems to be a big problem here.
There happened to be a large hole in the road when I drove along Main Street yesterday.
There tend to be a lot of young punks hanging around on this street.

there + 助V + be
This street is too dark. There should be some streetlights here.
I think there may be a better person for the job.

6. I walked around the house sucking my throbbing finger, finally arriving at the stairway.(見第22行)
sucking my throbbing finger, finally arriving at the stairway為分詞構句。句中現在分詞sucking和arriving表主動的意思。反之,若分詞構句中使用過去分詞,則有被動的意思。

7. Climbing up, I unhooked the receiver and held it to my ear.(見第25行)
climbing up 為一分詞構句,是由副詞子句 after I climbed up轉化而來的。

8. A click or two, and a small, clear voice spoke into my ear.(見第30行)
此句亦可說成”After one or two clicking sounds, I heard a small, clear voice speaking to me.”。

9. The tears came readily enough, now that I had an audience.(見第34行)
Now that 既然;因為;而今
Now that you have come, you may as well stay for a few days.
既然來了, 你就不妨住幾天嘛。

10. “Are you bleeding?”(見第38行)
bleed v. [I] (bleed, bled, bled) 流血
bleeding n. [U] 出血;放血
例:My little brother cut his finger and bled badly.
  His nose is bleeding.

11. And there was the time that Petey, our pet canary, died.(見第50行)
(1) “there was the time that...”可說成”there was a time when...”,當「有一次」解。
(2) Petey, our pet canary, 此處的 our pet canary 和 Petey 是同位語,用以說明 Petey 和我們的關係,因此在 our pet canary 前後都要加逗點。

12. Why was it that birds should sing so beautifully and bring joy to whole families, only to end as a heap of feathers feet up, on the bottom of the cage?(見第53行)
(1) 整句話可寫成 Why should birds that sing beautifully and make whole families happy have to die and end up lying with their feet up in the air, on the bottom of the cage?
(2) only to + V 表「結果卻……」。
例:He came all the way to the house only to find that not a person was there.

13. She must have sensed my deep concern, for she said quietly,....(見第57行)
(1) must have sensed 當「一定感受到」解。

文法/句型
must 表猜測的用法:
「對過去的猜測」,用must + have + p.p.。
It must have rained hard last night, for the ground is still wet.
「對現在的猜測」,用 must + V。
The man standing outside must be your father, for you two really look alike.
(2) sense v. [T] 感覺到;察覺
sense n. [C, U] 感覺;感官
(3) for 在此為一對等連接詞,用以引導附帶的說明文句,以表達所述事情的理由。for 所引導的子句通常放在後面,且在 for 前要加逗點。
例:Surely it will rain soon, for the sky is covered with dark clouds.

14. “Paul, always remember that there are other worlds to sing in.”(見第58行)
這句話是為了要安慰小孩,讓他們覺得死亡並不是結束,而是到另一個世界去開始另一種的生活,以減輕他們的悲傷。

15. Another day I was at the telephone.(見第61行)
這裡的 be + at the telephone 就是「在打電話」的意思。

16. ..., and I was not at all sure that I hadn’t hurt her when I pulled the receiver out.(見第71行)
(1) not at all 當「一點也不」解。
用於疑問句、條件句,當「到底;既然;即使」解。
Is the washing machine working at all?
If you are going to say anything at all, say it now.
(2) sure 在此當「確定」解。

17. He opened the telephone box, exposing a maze of wires and coils, and fiddled for a while with the end of the receiver cord, tightening things with a small screwdriver.(見第79行)
(1) 這裏的exposing a maze of wires and coils 和 tightening things with a small screwdriver 均為分詞構句。
(2) tighten v. [T] 使變緊;繫緊
tight adj. 緊的
tighten one’s belt 束緊腰帶;束緊褲帶過活;過艱苦的日子

18. He hung up, smiled, gave me a pat on the head and walked out the door.(見第86行)
本句為A, B, C and D的句型,也就是主詞He做了四個動作,分別是掛電話hung up、微笑smiled、拍拍我的頭gave me a pat on the head和走出門walked out the door。
(1) hang up 意為「掛上電話」;hang on 意為「不要掛電話」,亦可用 hold on,此片語較常用。
(2) give me a pat on the head 意為「拍拍我的頭」。pat 在此為名詞,與搭配詞 give 連用。若 pat 為動詞,則可參看本課 Grammar Focus II。

19. All this took place in a small town in the Pacific Northwest.(見第88行)
All of these things happened in a small town in the northwestern United States.
(1) take place 發生,舉行 (= happen, occur)
例:The final exam in math will take place at ten o’clock next Tuesday.
(2) the Pacific Northwest是指「(美國)西北部太平洋沿岸地區」,通常包括華盛頓州、俄勒岡州、以及加州北部等太平洋沿岸地區。

20. ..., and I somehow never thought of trying the tall, skinny new phone that sat on a small table in the hall.(見第91行)
For some reason, I never considered trying to talk to the operator on our new phone. I guess it was because it didn’t look at all like our old phone. Instead, it was a tall, skinny phone that sat on a table.
sit v. [I, T] 位於 (= be located, be situated);坐;使就座
例:The hotel sits at the edge of a lake.
  Tom sat cross-legged on the floor.
  He picked up his son and sat him on a chair.

21. Yet, as I grew into my teens, the memories of those childhood conversations never really left me;....(見第94行)
teens 意思是「十幾歲」,通常是指 13 到 19 歲的少年、少女。
teenage adj. = teenaged 十幾歲的
teenager n. [C] 十幾歲的少年、少女

文法/句型
in one’s teens/twenties/thirties/...
在某人十/二十/三十幾歲的時期
in one’s early/late teens/twenties/thirties/...
在某人十/二十/三十幾歲的前/後期
Boys and girls are quite rebellious while in their teens.
He is in his late twenties. (指 26 到 29 歲)

22. ...in moments of doubt and perplexity, I would recall the serene sense of security I had when I knew that I could call Information Please and get the right answer. (見第95行)
...at times when I felt confused, I felt better when I thought of how kind the operator had been to me when I was young. I felt better when I remembered how secure I had felt knowing that I could always depend on her for help.
a sense of security 安全感
a sense of achievement 成就感
a sense of humor 幽默感
a sense of responsibility 責任感
a sense of uneasiness 不安感
a sense of direction 方向感

23. I appreciated now how very patient, understanding and kind she was to have wasted her time on a little boy.(見第98行)
(1) How + adj./adv. + S + V ....
例:How beautiful the scenery is!
  How gracefully she dances!
  How clever a man you are to have talked her into it!

What + a/an + adj. + N + S + V ....
What + adj. +複數N + S + V ....
例:What a tragic event it is!
  What brave soldiers they are!
  What a clever woman you are to have talked him into it!

(2) 完成式的不定詞to have + p.p. 的用法:
(a) 可代表「過去式」或「完成式」的意思,課文中出現的用法即是「過去式」之意。
例:You seem to have annoyed Tom yesterday. (=It seems that you annoyed Tom yesterday.)
  I’m glad to have quit the job. (= I’m glad that I have quit the job.)
(b) 配合助動詞(would、should、could、might、needn’t等)和一些動詞(mean、would like、be-V等),則有假設語氣的意思,表示與事實相反的情況。
例:You should have called me last night.
  I meant to have called you, but I forgot.

24. A few years later, on my way west to college, my plane stopped in Seattle.(見第100行)
on the way (to) ... 意為「往……路上」。亦可說成 on one’s way (to) ...。若有必要,可在 way 的後面加一個方向(east、west、south、north)字來表達所往的方向。

25. I had about half an hour between connections, and I spent 15 minutes or so on the phone with my sister, who lived there, now happily mellowed by marriage and motherhood. (見第101行)
I had about thirty minutes between connections. I called my sister on the phone and talked to her for about 15 minutes. My sister was now married and had become a mother. She was not so wild as she had been when we were children (when she used to like to scare me).
(1) connection n. [C] 轉車,轉機,接駁的交通工具
例:The flight is delayed, so we may miss the connection to Paris.
(2) or so 當「大約……;……左右」解,放在所修飾的字詞後面,和 about 同義,但 about 是放在所修飾的字詞前面。
例:It takes two hours or so to get there.
  = It takes about two hours to get there.

26.  “Could you tell me, please, how to spell the word ‘fix’?”(見第113行)
在美式英文中,雙引號(” “)常使用在直接敘述之中,或是用來強調字詞等。(英式英文使用單引號)
但若是在雙引號的句子中,又有要再使用雙引號的情況下,會用單引號來表示,就像本句課文一樣,雙引號在外面,單引號在裡面。
※ 在英式英文中,則是單引號在外、雙引號在內。

27. Then came the softly spoken answer.(見第115行)
After the pause, she answered me, speaking in a soft voice.
此為倒裝句,原句為 The softly spoken answer came then. 。
then 為副詞,挪到句首後將動詞置於主詞之前。請參看本課 Grammar Focus I。

28. “...I wonder if you have any idea how much you meant to me during all that time....”(見第118行)
(1) wonder 意為「想知道;對……感到好奇」。

文法/句型
wonder + that 子句
wonder + wh子句/wh片語/if、whether 子句
I wonder 放在句尾,表說話者的猶豫,當「要怎麼做;覺得納悶」解。
Since he didn’t finish his final report, I wonder what the teacher will say to him tomorrow.
I wonder why he refused to go out with her.
I’m just wondering how to celebrate his twentieth birthday.
I wonder if the typhoon will hit the island.
"How could that have happened?” I wondered.

(2) ... mean to somebody ,這裡的 mean 當「……對……有意義;……對……重要」解。
例:Music meant everything to Jason.
  You do mean a lot to me.

29. ..., and I used to look forward to your calls.(見第121行)
look forward to 當「盼望」解。此處的 to 是介系詞,所以後面要接名詞或動名詞。
例:I’m looking forward to your reply.
  Patrick is looking forward to meeting with his sweetheart this coming summer vacation.

30. Sally had only been working part-time in the last few years because she was ill. She died five weeks ago.(見第137行)
(1) 過去完成進行式(had + been + V-ing)是用以表達一個動作在過去某段時間一直進行著,而且沒有延續到現在。這裡是要說明Sally在過去這幾年因為生病而一直是以兼職的方式工作,但是她五週前去世了,所以該動作沒有持續到現在,因此用過去完成進行式來表達。試比較下面例句的差異。
例:My legs were very sore because I had been standing still for a long time.(過去完成進行式表示之前一直站了很久,但現在已經沒站著了。)
  Tom has been playing video games for twelve hours.(現在完成進行式表示從12小時前就一直打電玩到現在。)
(2) work part-time 就是「兼職」之意。part-time 在此是用作副詞。又part-time 亦可當形容詞用。
例:a part-time job (一份兼差的工作)

31. Well, Sally left a message for you.(見第142行)
message n. [C] 留言,信息
messenger n. [C] 信差,使者
instant messaging 即時通 (= IM)
message board 電子留言板 (= electronic bulletin board)
text message (行動電話的)文字簡訊

32. “What was it?” I asked, almost knowing in advance what it would be.(見第143行)
(1) almost knowing in advance what it would be 為分詞構句表附帶說明。原句為 and I almost knew in advance what it would be。
(2) in advance 意為「事前;預先」。
例:Before you go to class, it’s necessary for you to preview your lessons in advance.

33. I did know what Sally meant.(見第147行)
did 在此是一種強調的用法,意為「的確;真的;務必」。此句又可寫成 I really knew what Sally meant.。助動詞 do、does 及 did 出現在直述句時,是用以表示強調之意。
例:I do like English.
  Do tell me, if you make up your mind.