2010年9月30日 星期四

Settle On the Topic

專題分組
The groups that do not finish discussing with Chris about the topics must do it by this weekend.

自然環保議題沒人做?可以想想?

Group A: NHI (OK)
Group B: Night school students (OK)
Group C: Documentary Films
Group D:  Poliomyelitis (OK)
Group E: Sex abuse (OK)
Group F:  Cycling (OK)
Group G: New Immigrants (OK)
Group H: Couch surfing (OK)
Group I: Stories behind wine (?)
Group J: Careus  (OK)
Group K: Auction Online (OK)
Group L:  Gangsters on the campus (OK)
Group M: Homosexuality  (OK)

Read awarded papers: 高職外語群科

2010年9月26日 星期日

Why Switzerland's Fiance Minister Burst Laughing?

Switzerland's Finance Minister Hans-Rudolf Merz burst into a giggle fit when he read a parliamentary speech on imports of cured meats. Want to know why? Read the subtitle on the video or below, and you'll see.

 

... he is trying to read out a formal notice from their equivalent of HM Revenue and Customs which is about a specialist meat product (Bündnerfleisch) where the tax code is different if the herbs inside it can be seen with the naked eye..


2010年9月25日 星期六

Weekly Journal

Dear all,

This week the weekly journal you have to finish is the L2 learning sheet. (The form is on the Moodle platform.) That is, you need to choose one of the theatrical companies or dancing groups or similar organizations (i.e. art performance). Then, introduce it, including the time they started it, the place they mostly perform, and other information. If you don't know how to write it, read lesson 2 once more time.

After finishing your learning sheet, do not forget to upload the assignment area of the Moodle platform.
Moodle--> General English --> L2 --> weekly journal

2010年9月19日 星期日

B5L4 Mysteries of the Past (史上的奧秘)

課文解析

1. With the vast knowledge of modern science, it seems there is nothing, or very little, that we do not know or will not know eventually.(見第4行)

有關seem這個動詞:
(1) seem這個動詞在句型轉換時,要特別注意它的時態
如:
It seems that your brother was very popular in college.
→ Your brother seemed to be very popular in college.

(2) 另外seem的否定用法,可有二種不同的寫法:
It seems that Kate never gets tired of studying.
 = Kate never seems to get tired of studying.
 = Kate seems never to get tired of studying.
但以第一種寫法較為常見。

2. It is estimated that the largest of the pyramids took twenty years to build and involved the labor of a hundred thousand workers moving 2.6 million blocks of stone into place.(見第14行)

(1) It is believed/estimated/said + that子句.
= People believe/estimate/say + that子句.
= S + be believed/estimated/said + to V.

(2) to move ... into place 將……放在(合適的、指定的)位置

3. How these massive blocks of stones were lifted and moved without the use of modern technology is a question that has never been fully answered, although many theories have been suggested.(見第17行)
(1) 此處 how + 子句形成間接問句做 is 的主詞。
間接問句的用法:
a. 當主詞
Where James goes for vacation will depend on how much money he has.
Who killed the millionaire will not be revealed until the end of the story.

b. 當受詞
I wonder who broke the window.
People are wondering how the team managed to win the championship.

c. 當主詞補語
The important thing is what a man does, not what he says.
The decision we have to make is who should be sent to the meeting.

d. 當受詞補語
You may call him what you wish.
His mother made him who he is today.

3. They may have been placed on wooden rollers or on brick ramps.(見第24行)
(1) 助動詞may表猜測,其後加have + p.p. 表對從前事物的猜測,若其後加原形動詞,則表對現在狀況的猜測。
(2) have been placed 是完成式的被動語態。
 
4. Even more amazing, though, is that such an ancient society would have had the technical ability to design these magnificent structures, which include many inner rooms and tunnels, and that they would have been able to organize so many workers to complete such a task.(見第25行)

(1) 這是個補語倒裝句,因主詞是個子句,故動詞是第三人稱單數的is。
即為 That such an ancient society would have had the technical ability to design these magnificent structures is even more amazing, ....

倒裝句——補語放在句首的倒裝句:
在詩歌、諺語或小說中常為了要強調補語、使動詞與核心主詞接近或為了押韻,常把補語放在句首,形成主詞補語放在句首的倒裝句。
如:
Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
Enclosed is the gift for your birthday.
Happy are those who can make others happy.
Gone are the happy days when Mom was alive and took such good care of us.

(2) though adv. (= despite this)
例:I agree it’s a good car. The problem, though, is it’s too small for us.

其他
though conj. (= despite the fact that)
例:Though he is good at math, the test was still too difficult for him.
though conj. (= but)
例:I think he likes me, though I’m not completely sure.

(3) 注意此句and that they would...中,and之後的that不可省略,用來提示它和前面的that子句為對等的關係。

5. Although many of the original stones are no longer standing, those [that are (still standing)] measure up to five meters in height and are topped with lintels, or horizontally placed stones that create a sort of roof around the circle.(見第31行)

(1) 此處的those為主詞,其動詞為measure ,中間的that are為關係子句,are之後省略了still standing,故原句可寫為”...those that are still standing measure up to five meters in height....”

Measurement
high → in height 高
wide → in width 寬
long → in length 長
This stone is five meters high.
= This stone is five meters in height.
= The height of this stone is five meters.

(2) be topped (off) with 上面覆蓋……
例:The cake is topped (off) with a layer of cherries, and it looks delicious.

(3) 副詞horizontally用來修飾後面的placed,而placed則是p.p.用來當形容詞,形容後面的名詞stones。意思就是被水平方向放置的石頭。

(4) sort在此當「種類」解釋,故等於kind。

6. Moreover, it remains a mystery just how these huge stones were brought to the site and placed in such a specific circular arrangement.(見第38行)

(1) 此處的it為虛主詞,真正的主詞為後面的”how + 子句”(間接問句)。原來的句子應是:
Just how these huge stones were brought to the site and placed in such a specific circular arrangement remains a mystery. 但主詞實在太長,所以用虛主詞 it 代替。

(2) remain v. [I] 的用法:
remain算是一個連綴動詞,故後面可以接形容詞、名詞或不定詞當作補語。
例:The mystery remains unsolved; nobody knows what happened to the missing girl.

7. As with the pyramids, it would have taken many workers and many days--or rather years--to accomplish.(見第40行)

(1) as with the pyramids 和金字塔的情形一樣
as在此有如關係代名詞which的作用,代替前面提過的事。類似的用法如:
例:John is late again, as is often the case.
  He was an Englishman, as they perceived by his accent.
  As everybody knows, baseball has always been my first passion.
(2) 此處的it為代名詞,代替Stonehenge。
(3) rather在此解釋為「更確切些」,常接在or之後,修正或補充上文。
例:He is my friend, or rather he was my friend.

8. Because of its mysterious origins, the site has been associated with many legends, perhaps most famously with the stories of King Arthur.(見第44行)

(1) perhaps most famously with  = perhaps the site has been associated most famously with
(2) King Arthur 亞瑟王(十三至十五世紀間出現許多有關他和他所領導的圓桌武士的故事)。

9. According to one legend, the stones were magically flown into place by Merlin, the famous wizard of Arthurian legend.(見第46行)
(1) Merlin是亞瑟王傳說故事中擁有無邊法力的巫師,也是他助亞瑟登上王位的。
(2) Arthurian是Arthur的形容詞,Arthurian legend表示是「亞瑟王時代的傳奇故事」。在英文裡,對於一些具有代表性的人,我們常常會將他們的名字加上形容詞的字尾 -ian,表示「具備那種特色的」意思。

Dickensian London 狄更斯(Charles Dickens)筆下的倫敦
the Freudian School 佛洛依德(Sigmund Freud)學派
Marxian Socialism 馬克斯(Karl Marx)式的社會主義

10. When European explorers arrived at this remote Pacific island in 1722, they discovered its coast was lined with hundreds of god--like statues carved from volcanic rock, each of them facing inland, away from the sea.(見第49行)

(2) each of them facing inland 每一座都面向內陸 = and each of them faced inland
此為分詞構句,此處的face是不及物動詞,作「朝、向」解。

11. All of them are nearly identical, except that some are taller than others, with the tallest being two stories in height and weighing several tons.(見第56行)

(1) except在此為介系詞,後可加that子句,that也可省略。
(2) with在此表示某一動作的伴隨狀態,其後的受詞常接有受詞補語。該補語常為分詞,表主動,用現在分詞 (V-ing),表被動,用過去分詞(pp)。
例:He stood right there with his eyes blinking.

12. Once again, it is difficult for us to imagine how people with only primitive technology would have been able to move these huge rocks from the area where they were quarried.(見第58行)

(1) once again表示事情已經發生不只一次。課文中表示之前已經很難想像巨石陣是怎麼建造出來的,現在所提到的復活島,同樣地再次挑戰我們的想像力。
例:Once again, he failed us by not showing up for the meeting on time.

(2) where they were quarried是關係子句,修飾前面的area。先行詞為地方時,關係子句要用where。從……(採石場)採得

13. Covering more than five hundred square kilometers, it has been called the biggest drawing ever created.(見第73行)
(1) 這是一個分詞構句的結構,原句可寫成:Because it covers (包含,有) more than five hundred square kilometers, it has been called the biggest drawing that has ever been created.

14. Overlying the drawings of birds, animals, insects and flowers is a complex network of intersecting lines, some of which are hundreds of miles long and extend across the desert plains and up into the mountains.(見第78行)
(1) 本句是個倒裝句
(2) 注意此句逗點後面的which子句可改寫為:..., and some of the lines are hundreds of miles long....

15. One of the greatest wonders about the Nasca Lines is that they show the Nascan people to have had highly developed surveying skills.(見第82行)

(1) 【祕魯】神秘的納斯卡線Nazca Lines
此句中的show作「證明」解,其受詞之後可用to + 原形V作受詞補語。
例:I can show the plan to be faulty.

(2) 此處to之後接have + p.p. 表示在過去所發生的動作。
例:Nobody believes the lady to have been a beauty when she was young.

16. Like most other ancient structures, they are believed to have had some religious or ritualistic function, perhaps meant as a means of communicating with the gods.(見第90行)

(1) 此處的meant為過去分詞,是分詞構句放在句尾的形式。可改寫為 “... and perhaps they were meant as a means of communicating with the gods.”

17. Taken together, these mysteries point to yet another mystery: For whatever purpose, just how did human beings first get the inspiration to build and to create such structures?(見第94行)

(1) 這是表示被動用法的分詞構句。原句應為:When these mysteries are taken together, they....
(2) yet常用來強調another。如果把這些奧秘全部放在一起,它們都指向另一個奧秘…

(3) whatever的各種用法:
a. whatever在此當形容詞用,後面接名詞。
例:Take whatever book you like; I don’t need them anyway.
b. whatever當代名詞
例:You can do whatever you like just as long as you don’t disturb the neighbors.
c. whatever當副詞(= whatsoever)。
例:I have no interest whatever in anything you say about Tim.

Project Learning本週作業

Go to the High School Students’ Website (中學生網站) or National Library (國家圖書館) to read one of the articles related to your topic and answer the following questions. (~ March 99)
1. What is a research paper?
2. What elements does it contain? (That is, how does a research paper look like? How many parts are there in a research paper?)
3. What basic knowledge or skill do you need when writing it?

2010年9月18日 星期六

Beautiful Pronunciation & Quick Responses

Dear all,

You need to have beautiful pronunciation. Then, the next step is to learn quick responses.

2010年9月12日 星期日

2010年9月11日 星期六

B5L3 Two Essays

L3 Two Essays
Reading
課文翻譯與重點分析
1. ..., the accumulated knowledge and experience of ages; ....(見第4行)
(1) ages 在此處指的是「歷代;眾多的時期」。ages在日常會話中有a very long time 的意思。
例:I’ve been waiting for the bus for ages!

2. ...; they picture for us the marvels and beauties of nature, ....(見第4行)
(1) 此句亦為they picture the marvels and beauties of nature for us ...
picture為及物動詞,有「描繪;想像」之意。
例:Her face brightened as she pictured the springtime in her hometown.
picture somebody V-ing 想像某人正做某事
picture sb./sth. as sth. 將某人/某物描繪成……

3. ..., change hours of weariness into moments of delight, ....(見第6行)
(1) change A into B = turn A into B 將A轉變為B
例:The wicked witch changed the princess into a swan.

4. ..., and lift us out of and above ourselves.(見第11行)
(1) lift us out of ourselves意指「提升我們脫離目前的景況」。
(2) lift us above ourselves意指「提升我們進入更高的(心靈)層次」。

5. ..., what is far better, we may transport ourselves to the mountains or the seashore, ....(見第15行)
(1) what is better/what’s better 更好的是
補充
what is worse/what’s worse
更糟的是
what is more/what’s more 此外;再則(= moreover)

6. Precious and priceless are the blessings which books scatter around our daily paths.見第 19 行) 3 2 1
= The blessings which books scatter around our daily paths are precious and priceless.
(1) 本句的主詞為the blessings,which形容詞子句修飾the blessings。全句為倒裝句,將訊息焦點的the blessings及其後子句後移。
(2) scatter something around somewhere 將某物散佈在某處
例:Let’s scatter the grass seeds around the yard.
(3) daily paths每天的生活

7. We walk, in imagination, with the noblest spirits, through the most sublime and enchanting regions.(見第20行)
(1)the noblest spirits意指people with very noble minds,也就是古聖先賢、偉大典籍的著作者。

8. Macaulay had wealth and fame, rank and power, and yet he tells us ....(見第23行)
(1)and yet = but,yet副詞;此處亦可去and,直接用yet當連接詞。

9. ... he owed the happiest hours of his life to books.(見第24行)
(1) owe … to… 把……歸功或歸因於……
例:He owes his success to his family education.

10. ..., on condition that I should not read books, ....(見第28行)
(1) on (the) condition that S + V 指「條件是……」、「假使……」。
例:I will pick you up at your house on the condition that you promise to be ready on time.

11. I would rather be a poor man in a garret with plenty of books than a king who did not love reading.(見第29行)
(1) would rather 助動詞片語。
would rather V1 than V2 寧可……也不願……(後接原形動詞)= would V1 rather than V2
例:He would rather die fighting for his country than live as a coward.
(2) plenty of + N可數/不可數
例:Sharon has plenty of admirers at school.
  It’s good that we still have plenty of time before the performance.

12. Youth is not a time of life; it is a state of mind; .... (見第33行)
(1) a state of mind「心境」= a frame of mind。

13. ...; it is not a matter of rosy cheeks, red lips and supple knees; it is a matter of the will, a quality of the imagination, a vigor of the emotions; ....(見第33行)
(1)a matter of + N「攸關……之事」
a matter of life and death 攸關生死之事;極為重要之事
例:Stop panicking. Forgetting your girlfriend’s birthday isn’t a matter of life and death.

14. ...; it is the freshness of the deep springs of life. (見第35行)
(1) springs of life指「湧流不息的生命泉源」。

15. Youth means the predominance of courage over timidity; (predominance) of adventure over the love of ease. (見第37行)
(1) over指「勝過;超越」。
(2) 在分號後省略了the predominance。
(3) love of ease指「對於安逸享樂的喜愛」。
→年輕意味著勝過怯弱的卓越勇氣,和勝過苟安的冒險精神。

16. Nobody grows old merely by a number of years. We grow old by deserting our ideals.(見第39行)Living many years is not what makes a person old. Giving up our dreams is what makes us old.
(1) merely = only 僅僅
(2) a number of = some 若干,一些 + 可數名詞
(3) by + N/V-ing藉由某方法或作法。
(4) desert our ideals = cast aside our ideals 拋棄我們的理想

17. ...---these are the long, long years that bow the head and turn the growing spirit back to dust.(見第42行)
(1) bow the head 使人低下頭
(2) turn something to dust = completely destroy something 使(某物)消失殆盡

18. ..., there is (in every human being’s heart) the love of wonder, the sweet amazement of the stars and the star-like things, the undaunted challenge of events, the unfailing child-like appetite for what comes next, and the joy of the game of living.(見第45行)
(1) there is之後的主詞補語為 “the love of wonder
the sweet amazement of the stars and the star-like things, the undaunted challenge of events, the unfailing child-like appetite for what comes next, and the joy of the game of living” 等是一連串同位格的名詞片語,用來具體說明人人心中都有年輕的本色,因該補語過長而被安置在句末,成為全句的訊息焦點。
(1) an appetite for something 對於(某事)的欲望
例:The public seems to have a great appetite for celebrity gossip.
(2) what comes next名詞子句,指接下來會發生的事;未知的將來
(3) unfailing = never-changing; never-ending經久不衰的
VOCABULARY
1. essay question 問答題/申論題 例:There will be five essay questions on the exam.

4. a marvel to behold 奇觀;令人讚嘆的事物
marvel of ……的奇蹟、奇異之事
marvel over/at 對……感到神奇、驚異
marvel that 對……感到神奇、驚異
例:The cave paintings must really be a marvel to behold.   
You can see marvels of modern science all over the city.   
George marveled over/at the change in the little girl.   
We marveled that a boy of his age could act with such sophistication.

5. beautify v. [T] 美化
beauty contest 選美會
the beauty of something 某事的優點、妙處
例:Irene spent a lot of time beautifying her room.   
The beauty of owning a laptop is that you don’t have to be tied to your desk when you need to use a computer.

7. wearily adv. 疲乏地;厭倦地
a weary sigh 一聲疲憊的歎息
be weary of V-ing 厭倦做……
例:After finishing typing the long report, he stood up wearily.   
Mrs. Swanson let out a weary sigh when she found that her daughter had left her room in a mess again.   
I am weary of having to explain myself to my parents again and again.

8. store away something/store something away 收藏;備用
store up something 儲存;累積
in storage 儲存中
例:The weather is getting warm. It’s time to store away our winter clothes.   
Let’s get some rest. We need to store up some energy for our hiking trip this weekend.   
A lot of our best silverware is in storage.

9. be fatigued with 因……而疲憊
例:After constantly taking care of her chronically sick mother in the hospital, Laura’s hair turned gray from fatigue.

10. at someone’s convenience 在某人方便的時候
例:We can meet for another discussion at your convenience.

11. at someone’s expense 由某人付費;嘲弄某人
at the expense of something 以某物為代價;犧牲某物
at great/vast/considerable expense 花了大筆開銷
例:My friends had great fun at my expense.   
His success was achieved at the expense of his health.   
His success was achieved at great expense.

14. a blessing in disguise 偽裝的祝福;塞翁失馬焉知非福
mixed blessing 福禍相倚;有福有禍
be blessed with something 幸運擁有某物;有福氣得到某物
例:It was a mixed blessing that I got promoted---I’m earning more money but I have less time with my family.   
We are blessed with two lovely daughters.

19. owing to 由於;因為
例:Owing to bad weather, the outing was canceled.

22. quality and quantity 質與量
quality control (= QC) 品質管制
quality time優質時間

24. spring v. [I, T](spring, sprang, sprung)跳躍;起源於
a spring in someone’s step 腳步輕快
spring to one’s feet 迅速起身
spring from something 起源於
spring to (one’s) mind 突然想起
例:He arrived with a spring in his step, looking extremely cheerful.   
She sprang to her feet as soon as she saw the principal walk in.   
Mable’s interest in music sprang from her upbringing in Austria.   
I had been trying all day to remember who he was, and then suddenly a name sprang to my mind.

25. reserved adj. 預訂的,儲備的;拘謹的,保守的
withdrawn adj. 退縮的
例:He is a reserved person who seldom talks in public.   
After his parents were killed in a plane crash, he became withdrawn.

26. desert n. [C] 沙漠 vs. dessert甜點
deserted adj. 荒涼的
例:The Gobi Desert is located in both China and Mongolia.   
The island has been deserted since the big flood.

28. in despair 絕望之下

2010年9月9日 星期四

Reminder

Here are some notes that you need to pay attention in doing your project.
  • Hand in your paper on time.
  • Reach the criterion.
  • Do not copy others' words. If you really need to, give the citation and quotations.
  • Do not get answers just from books or teachers.
  • Do not write out of your own head. Read more, digest all the relative material, do some thinking, and integrate all into a neat package.
  • Need to create your own work.
  • Need to find examples to support your ideas.
Assignment for this week: Write down the name of your group, group-introduction, research topic, reasons, and solutions (why and how).
  • Do not forget to upload your paper to the Moodle platform and paste it on your group blog.
  • Give the link. If you don't know how, send me your web address.

2010年9月8日 星期三

IWiLL活動成果

Read for yourself, not for anyone. Then, your future can become bright!

2010年9月7日 星期二

Grouping (分組)

專題分組 (請連結你的作業網址)
  1. Group A: 22, 39
  2. Group B: 37, 25
  3. Group C: 33, 31
  4. Group D: 21, 29, 15
  5. Group E: 32, 13
  6. Group F: 38, 30, 12
  7. Group G:24, 28, 20
  8. Group H: 11, 43, 40
  9. Group I: 27, 35, 19
  10. Group J: 41, 18, 17
  11. Group K: 42, 6
  12. Group L: 2, 3, 9
  13. Group M: 1, 14, 26 
網路英文
  1. Group A: 15, 30, 38, 33, 31, 12, 21
  2. Group B: 19, 39, 22, 25, 27, 35, 37
  3. Group C: 24, 1, 18, 28, 11, 42, 43
  4. Group D: 3, 9, 29, 13, 20, 32
  5. Group E: 14, 17, 26, 2, 6, 40, 41

B5L2 Lin Hwai-min and the Cloud Gate Dance Theatre

課文翻譯與重點分析
1. Over the past three decades, he has proved himself again and again as a choreographer of great ambition, courage, and genius.(見第8行)
(1) over the past three decades: 在過去這三十年來
“past”在此表示「剛過去的」、「才結束的」,與一段時間連用,常用現在完成式。
例: In the past three years, he has tried his best to help his students.
(2) prove oneself (to be) something 證實自己有……的能力
例:She needs to prove herself a great leader.
3. It must have been like a wild dream at the time.(見第12行)
must + have p.p. 表示對過去事情的推測
例:David looked depressed when he left the office. He must have felt very frustrated after a day’s work.
must + 原形V 表示對現在事實的推測
例:”Who is standing outside the door?” “It must be Paul.”
4. There were few people in Taiwan then who knew anything about modern dance, and there were few studios or theaters to practice or perform in. (見第13行)
(1) few + 可數複數名詞:極少數的(少到幾乎沒有)……;沒有幾個……
little + 不可數名詞:極少數的(少到幾乎沒有)……;沒有多少……
例:Jeff has few friends in the class.
  There is little water left in the bottle.
a few 和 a little 相當於 some「一些」,
例:I may not have a lot of friends, but I do have a few good buddies.
  He poured a little water into the basin.
(2) studios or theaters to practice or perform in:不定詞片語”to practice or perform in”做形容詞用,修飾前面的名詞studios or theaters,in不可省略。
例:I have nothing to complain about.
5. No matter where they appeared, Lin’s dancers were greeted by enthusiastic audiences all over the island.(見第20行)
(1) be greeted by/with 受到……樣的歡迎,反應
greet sb./sth. with ... 以……態度迎接……;以……態度回應……
例:The transfer student was greeted by his teacher and classmates.
  The woman greeted her returning husband with kisses on both cheeks.
6. From these humble but promising beginnings, Lin built the Cloud Gate Dance Theatre into the most famous and influential performing group in Taiwan.(見第23行)
(1) build A into B 把 A建立成為B
into和動詞連用時,有「改變成為……」的含意。
例:The color of the stone turned into red.
  Please translate the sentence into Chinese.
7. What makes Cloud Gate so praiseworthy is Lin’s unique style of choreography, especially his great talent for fusing East and West.(見第35行)
(1) a talent for (doing) something ……的才能
例: She showed a talent for painting at an early age.
8. He uses modern dance and ballet movements, for example, but combines these with movements inspired by a wide range of Asian traditions: Chinese opera, tai-chi and chi-kong, Buddhist meditation, aboriginal ritual dances, the classical dances of Indonesia, India, Korea, and Japan, and also everyday motions that are familiar to Asian peoples, for example, the motions of people planting rice or burning incense.(見第38行)
(1) inspired為過去分詞,修飾movements,可以轉換為形容詞子句。
...movements inspired by a wide range of Asian traditions...
= ...movements which are inspired by a wide range of Asian traditions...
(2) a ... range of + N 一……系列的……;一……種類的……
a broad/wide range of 範圍很廣的…… a whole/full range of 一整個系列的……
例:Students benefit from the workshop because it covers a whole range of writing skills.
(3) 冒號之後的文字為受詞Asian traditions的同位語,地位與受詞相當,即列舉Asian traditions的範圍。
例:The company manufactures various accessories: hats, belts, bags, shoes and so on.
(4) 事物be familiar to 人
某事物對某人而言是熟悉的
人be familiar with事物
某人熟悉某事物
例:Tropical plants are not familiar to me.
  I am not familiar with tropical plants.
(5) Asian peoples:亞洲民族
people 在此當「民族」,為可數名詞,複數形加”s”表示各個民族。
9. Lin himself has described his dances as “a mixture of many, many things.” (見第45行)
describe ... as ... 將……描述為……
例:They describe their homeroom teacher as an evil witch.
其他類似片語如下:
recognize ... as ... 把……公認為……
refer to ... as ... 把……稱為……
例:Jack is recognized as a super star.
  We used to refer to our math teacher as a wizard of numbers.
10. In one dance, for example, the back of the stage is covered with a giant lotus painting; in another, huge calligraphy scrolls hang from the ceiling; and in still another, rice grains are poured onto the stage in a continuous stream, resembling a sort of unusual but beautiful waterfall.(見第52行)
(1) hang from the ceiling 從天花板垂吊而下
以from表示由高處而下的例子:
fall from the tree 從樹上掉下來
fall from the ladder 從梯子上跌下來
fall from the stairs 從樓梯上掉下來
11. While images such as these reflect a traditional Chinese sensibility, other images focus on a more modern-day experience.(見第56行)
句中while指「然而」,「相對於」,用法等同whereas。此連接詞的句型有兩種:
While/Whereas + S + V, S + V .... S + V, + while/whereas + S + V ....
例:She takes the bus to work, whereas I take the subway.
while當although(雖然)放句首,連接附屬子句。
例: While we may disagree with each other sometimes, we are still good friends.
while 放句中連接附屬子句時,表示前後不同的對照,相當於中文的「……而……」。
例:I enjoy staying home on the weekend, while my husband prefers doing outdoor activities.
  He usually stays up late, while I always keep early hours.
while 做when、during the time that 或at the same time as,可以放句首或句中。
例:While I was doing the cooking in the kitchen, he was watching TV in the living room.
  I lived with my host family while I was studying in Vancouver.
12. The same is true of Lin Hwai-min’s themes---that is, the stories and ideas that he expresses in his dances.(見第61行)
(1) be true of ... 就……而言也是如此
例:Learning a language takes time. This is true of any second language learning.
(2) that is = that is to say 也就是說
例:Stephanie is optimistic---that is (to say), she always expects good things to happen.

VOCABULARY
4. enthusiastic about + N 對……熱衷的
an enthusiastic welcome 熱烈的歡迎
lose one’s enthusiasm 失去熱忱

5. promising adj. 有希望的
a promising young artist 前途光明的年輕藝術家

6. be influential in + V-ing 對……有重大的影響
influence on/over + N 對……有影響力
under the influence of ... 受到……的影響
strongly/heavily influence sb./sth. 深深地影響某人/某事

8. suburban adj. 郊區的
urban adj. 都市的
suburban life 【貶】單調乏味的郊區生活

12. fuse v. [T, I] 融合;熔接在一起;熔合;結合
fuse together 結合在一起
blow a fuse 燒斷保險絲
the fusion of East and West 東西方融合

13. evident adj. 明顯的;明白的
hard/good/solid/strong/clear evidence 確切的/有效的/確實的/強而有力的/清楚的證據
lack of evidence 缺乏證據

15. combine v. [T, I] 合併;結合
A combine with B A與B結合起來
combine A with/and B 結合A與B
in combination with 與……結合
例:The child’s eyes were wide with curiosity and innocence combined.
  Bad weather combined with delayed flights ruined my trip.
  According to critics, the artist’s paintings combine imagination and/with passion.
  Do not take medicine in combination with soda or alcohol.

16. deep in meditation 沈思中
lost in meditation 陷入沈思
practice meditation 打坐
meditate on + N 沈思某事
例:Mr. Berger looked at the picture in meditative silence.
  Jeff sat alone in his room, deep in meditation.
  She was completely lost in meditation.
  She has been meditating on life and death for hours.

17. aboriginal adj. 原住民的;土著的;本土原有的; n. [C] 土著;原住民
aboriginal settlement 原住民區
aboriginal inhabitants 本土的原始居民

18. a ritual dance 祭典舞
morning/ nightly ritual 早晨起床後/ 晚上睡前的慣例
go through a ritual 執行慣例
perform a ritual 執行慣例

20. a striking performance 精彩的表演
strikingly beautiful 非常美麗

23.
make sense 有道理;講得通
out of one’s senses 精神失常;瘋了
a sixth sense 第六感

25. infuse v. [T] 灌輸;注入;使充滿
infuse A with B 使A充滿B
infuse sth. into ... 將某物注入……
be infused with 充滿
an infusion of cash/money 投入現金/金錢
例:The peace talks infused the two countries with hope.
  The newborn baby infused joy and excitement into the family.
  Her poems are infused with patriotism.
  The only way to save the company is with the infusion of a big sum of money.

IDIOMS AND PHRASES
3. (it is) no wonder (that) ... 難怪……
it is small/little wonder that ... 難怪……
in wonder 驚嘆地
例:It is small wonder Monica is angry; she heard you say those mean things about her.
  Never having seen such a magnificent sight before, Dave gazed at the canyon in wonder.

2010年9月4日 星期六

Notice (通知)

1. 要申請學校獎助金的同學,不要忘了週一趕快到教官那拿單子申請。
2. 遠東/實用英文Moodle網站有提供字彙的語音檔。請記得到moodle收聽!
請大家告知大家!

2010年9月2日 星期四

B5L1 Can Animals Think?( 動物具有思考的能力嗎?)

課文分析:
1. Can they make decisions based on information?(見第1行)
(1) 其他利用make當動詞的慣用語: make a wish 許願,make money 賺錢,make a fire 生火,make a sound/noise 發出聲音/噪音,make progress 進步,make a judgment 判斷,make a suggestion 建議,make a mistake 犯錯,make an effort 努力,make a change 改變

(2) base on: on the basis of 以……為基礎;根據

2. Now, many of them believe that some animals have the brain power to understand new situations, make decisions, and plan ahead. (見第3行)
the brain power: intellectual capacity 智力;聰明

3. Dandy knew where the grapefruit was, but when the other chimps were in the area, he pretended that he did not know the location.(見第10行)
 (1) where the grapefruit was是間接問句,當knew的受詞。
1. 間接問句應採直述句的形式(疑問詞+S+V)。
2. 句尾標點符號看主要子句來決定。 
I don’t know where he lives.
I wonder what he wants.
Do you know why she got mad at him?

(2) the other + N 表示除了Dandy之外所有的猩猩。
(3) pretend v. [I, T] 假裝 pretend + to V 假裝做某事 pretend + that 子句 假裝……

4. Later, when the other chimps fell asleep, he went right to the spot where the grapefruit was hidden, dug it up, and ate it.(見第12行)
(1) 主要子句的句構是由三個動詞並列(went、dug、ate)的方式呈現(V1, V2, and V3)。
(2) where引導關係副詞子句修飾spot。

5. A green-backed female heron in Japan also did something surprising.(見第15行)
(1) green-backed是複合形容詞(compound adjectives),類似結構的字如:black-hearted, double-sided, good-natured, long-legged, warm-hearted, white-collared 等。

(2) 一般形容詞都放名詞前面,但若修飾複合不定代名詞如:nothing, something, everything, anything, someone, anyone, everyone, nobody, somebody, everybody, anybody,則形容詞要緊接在複合不定代名詞之後。

6. When she saw some minnows swimming around in a pond, she came up with a way to catch them.(見第18行)
(1) see為感官動詞,後面加現在分詞,強調看到時,動作正在進行。若加原形動詞,則強調事實狀態。加上過去分詞,則指被動的狀態。感官動詞還有:hear/feel/watch ...等等。
例:I heard Sam and Ted talking about you the other day.   
I saw the ball thrown from the window, but I don’t know who threw it.

7. First, she found a twig and broke it into small pieces.(見第21行)
(1) 樹的構造,由底而上,分別為root→trunk→branch→twig→leaf。
(2) break something into: to separate something into two or more parts 將……折斷/分為

8. She even moved it to a place in the pond where it would attract the minnows.(見第22行)
(1) 此處兩個it都是指the twig。 (2) where引導副詞子句,修飾a place in the pond。

9. Finally, when the minnows swam over to the twig, she was able to catch one for her lunch.(見第23行) (1) one = a minnow 以下是有關不定代名詞one的用法:

文法/句型
1. one用以代替前(後)的名詞,以避免重複。
(1) 前面無修飾語時: If you need a bicycle, I can lend you one (= a bicycle).  
Mr. Anderson was a clerk at the supermarket ten years ago, and remains one (= a clerk) now.  
注意:這種結構中,複數要用some不能用ones。  
Do you have tomatoes? I’d like to buy some (= tomatoes).

(2) 前面有修飾語時:
  I don’t like this red shirt. Do you have a blue one?
This is definitely a bad idea. We should think of a better one.  
 注意:這種結構中,複數可以用ones。

注意:此外 one (1) 不可以代替不可數名詞;(2) 不可以放數字之後;(3) 不可以放所有格
或own之後。

注意: one = a + N ;   it = the + N

Do you have a fax machine? Yes, I have one (= a fax machine).
Do you have the book? Yes, I have it ( = the book).

10. But what Alex once did outside of the laboratory was even more impressive.(見第35行)
(1) what = something that;以what引導的子句為主詞,動詞要用單數。
例:What the child needs is not only money but also a family.   
What he said was quite unthinkable.

(2) 修飾比較級,可以用 even 、 still 、 much 、 far 、 slightly 、 a lot 、 a little 、 a bit等。
例:Michael is quite tall, but his brother is even taller.

11. It seems that Alex either thought he was being punished for doing something wrong, or simply felt afraid. (見第39行)
(1) either A or B 「不是A就是B」,A 和B的結構要對等 例:Either you or he is to blame.(動詞與靠近的主詞一致)   
You may either pay for your meal or be taken to the police.

12. In either case, his trainer couldn’t help but think that Alex had learned to use language to express his thoughts.(見第41行)
After hearing his words, Alex’s trainer really felt that Alex had learned to express his own thoughts.
(1) in either case 不管是哪一種情況;兩種情況都……
(2) can’t help but + 原形V = can’t help + V-ing 不禁……;忍不住……

例:Upon hearing his joke, Anna couldn’t help but burst out laughing.   
When I saw that Jack had his shoes on the wrong feet, I couldn’t help but laugh.   
= When I saw that Jack had his shoes on the wrong feet, I couldn’t help laughing.

13. He would neither eat nor sleep.(見第51行)
He would not eat, and he would not sleep. neither ... nor ... 「既不……也不……」;兩邊所接的語詞結構必須對等。
例:I don’t understand why you’re fond of Ken. He’s neither rich nor handsome.   
Neither my sister nor I want to go to the movie with you.(動詞與靠近的主詞一致)

14. It certainly seemed like he had fallen in love.(見第53行)
seem like 可以加子句或名詞。
例:It may not seem like a good idea, but it’s feasible.   
It seemed like he didn’t quite agree with you.

句型/文法
1. 比較seem, appear, look, sound This appears to be a useful tool.(比seem正式些) 
Stanley looked upset.(指外表看起來似乎)
She sounded happy on the phone.(指聽起來似乎)

2. seem like/as if/as though + S + V
   It seems like he doesn’t want us to get involved.
   It seemed as if the end of the war had come.
  It seems as though today’s young people don’t care about saving money.

【注意】seem 後不能只接as,一定要接as if/though + 子句。

15. In Italy, scientists showed that an octopus could learn how to perform a task by watching another octopus do it.(見第54行)
(1) perform: to do or carry out something perform a task/job/duty/function 做/執行一項工作/職務 與「做」有關的動詞,請參考本課Word Power。
(2) watch為感官動詞,後面加原形動詞do。

16. In this experiment, an octopus who did not know how to open a jar to get to a crab inside was allowed to watch another octopus who did know how.(見第57行)
(1) 以關係代名詞who所引導的形容詞子句 (who did not know how to open a jar to get to a crab inside) 界定先行詞octopus,指那是隻「不會打開罐子抓罐內螃蟹」的章魚。

(2) 助動詞do/does/did + 原形動詞強調肯定,表示「確實」;「的確」。 例:Sam and I don’t see each other very often, but when we do meet, we talk for hours.

(3) 畫線的how指的就是how to open a jar to get to a crab inside。

17. After observing how the second octopus did it, the first octopus was able to open the jar himself.(見第60行)
After + V-ing, S + V或S + V + after + V-ing用法類似於分詞構句,因主詞相同而省略。另外before/while/when 也可用此句型。

18. Until recently, many scientists had thought that only mammals could learn by watching others.(見第61行)
(1) until recently 「一直到最近」,表示科學家們一直到不久前都還認為只有智力較高等的哺乳類動物會藉由觀察來學習。
(2) 算到過去某時的經驗,所以主要子句用過去完成式。

19. Stories like these raise many questions about animals and the way they think and behave.(見第64行)
(1) like = such as 像;如
例:I had an experience like this about 6 years ago when I bought my first digital camera.
(2) raise questions 提出問題 以下是常見與raise搭配的名詞:raise your hand, raise money/funds, raise a child/a family, raise doubts/fears, raise one’s spirits, raise one’s eyebrows, raise one’s voice, raise the roof等。
(3) the way + S + V ……的方式
例:I like the way my sister danced--she looked very graceful.   
Judging from the way Tom looked at Sally, I think he has fallen in love with her!

31. It seems that animals are capable of more than just processing information like a robot.(見第65行)
(1) be capable of + V-ing/N 能夠 = be able to + V
例:The boy was only 7 years old, but he was capable of looking after himself.   
I’d like to take a vacation, but I don’t seem able to find the time.

(2) more than 不只 例:What they care about is more than their son’s academic performance.   
What she has done is more than what a teacher is required to do.

32. Perhaps their behavior is the result of more than just instinct and memorized rules.(見第66行)
Maybe animals use more than instinct and memory. 格言 Second thoughts are best. 再思而後行。