Watch and listen to the video so that you will know how to design questions for your questionnaire or interview.
一. 限定 (不加逗點, 若無此限定形容詞子句,語意會不完整) VS. 非限定(加逗點, 唯一的那個人,是補述用法)
2. Diana, who I spoke to in the morning, is very interested in our project.
═ Diana, to whom I spoke in the morning, is very interested in our project.
3. I need a secretary who has a college degree and can speak fluent Spanish.
4. The painting (which) you bought at a high price last week is a fake.
2. Had I known your telephone number, I would have called you last night. (屬於”與過去事實相反”的假設)
※3. You might have been killed had the rescue team not arrived in time. (屬於”與過去事實相反”的假設)
4. Should the train be delayed, please let me know at once. (屬於”對未來不確定”強烈的假設) 解釋為: 萬一
Without / But for / + N(片), S + would/should... (看是現在或過去的假設),
If it were not for N(片), S + whould/should + V.. = (倒裝): Were it not for N(片), S + whould/should + V..
If it had not been for N(片), S + whould/should have +pp.. = (倒裝): Had it not for N(片), S + whould/should have +pp..
5. Had it not been for your help, I would not have been able to fix my bike. (屬於”與過去事實相反”的假設)
3. Were it not for your support, I couldn’t be able to cope with difficulties.
→原句為：If it were not for your support, I couldn’t be able to cope with difficulties.
4. If it were not for the Internet, we couldn’t find the information we need so quickly.
→倒裝：Were it not for the Internet, we couldn’t find the information we need so quickly. (此句屬於”與現在事實相反”的假設)
6. Had it not been for the kind lady, I might have been lost forever.
→原句為：If it had not been for the kind lady, I might have been lost forever.
7. If it had not been for that kind student, I wouldn’t have been able to pay the fare.
→倒裝：Had it not been for that kind student, I wouldn’t have been able to pay the fare. (此句屬於”與過去事實相反”的假設)
假設語氣 + 倒裝句
If + S + beV/V現在/助V, S + 一般V/助V + V原
Ex: (1) If I study hard, I will get good grades.
I am a good student. → Am I a good student?
I study English. → Do I study English?
I can study hard. → Can I study hard?
If + S + beV/V現在/助V, S + 一般V/助V + V原
→BeV + S + ~, S + 一般V/助V + V原
→Do + S + V原, S + 一般V/助V + V原
→助V + S + V原, S + 一般V/助V + V原
(1)If I am a good student, I can get a lollipop.
→Am I a good student, I can get a lollipop.
(2)If I study hard, I will get good grades.
→Do I study hard, I will get good grades.
(3)If the train should be delayed, please let me know at once.
→Should the train be delayed, please let me know at once.
If + S + were/V-ed, S + would/might/could/should + V原
※beV一律用were, 即使是I, she, he
Ex:(1)If I were you, I would kiss her.
(2)If I kissed her, she might love me more.
If + S + were/V-ed, S + would/might/could/should + V原
→Were + S + ~, S + would/might/could/should + V原
→Did + S + V原, S + would/might/could/should + V原
(1) If I were you, I would kiss her.
→Were I you, I would kiss her.
(2)If I were a nurse, I should be patient.
→Were I a nurse, I should be patient.
(3)If I kissed her, she might love me more.
→Did I kiss her, she might love me more.
If + S + had + p.p, S + would/might/could/should + have + p.p
Ex:(1)If I had enough money, I would have bought this house.
If + S + had + p.p, S + would/might/could/should + have + p.p
→Had + S + p.p, S + would/might/could/should + have + p.p
(1) If I had had enough money, I would have bought this house.
→Had I had enough money, I would have bought this house.
(2)If I had studied hard, I could have passed the exam.
→Had I studied hard, I could have passed the exam.
※(1)You might have been killed if the rescue team had not arrived in time.
→You might have been killed had the rescue team not arrived in time.
(2)I might have been incredulous if I had not been accustomed to such responses.
→I might have been incredulous had I not been accustomed to such responses.
Ex:(1) The bus comes here.＝ Here comes the bus.
1 2 3 3 2 1
(2) A book is on the desk.＝ On the desk is a book.
1 2 3 3 2 1
※ S(主詞)為代N, 1→2→3＝3→1→2
Ex:(1) I am here. ＝ Here I am.
1 2 3 3 1 2
(2) Here you are.→翻譯為：1.你在這裡 2.你要的東西在這裡
(3) I lived somewhere (inside that good device).
＝Somewhere (inside that good device) I lived.
Ex: The softly spoken answer came then. ＝ Then came the softly spoken answer.
1 2 3 3 2 1
(1) 否定副詞：only, never, little, few, hardly, scarcely, barely, seldom, no sooner~ than~…
Ex:(1) I never study English.＝ Never do I study English.
(2)I hardly loved him.＝ Hardly did I love him.
(3)I have never been to U.S.A.＝ Never have I been to U.S.A.
(4)He had no sooner entered the room than I found myself~ (no sooner than一~就~)
＝No sooner had he entered the room than I found myself~
He had entered the room no sooner than I found myself~
＝No sooner than I found myself~ had he entered the room.
(5)I realized how much she meant to me only at that very important.
＝Only at that very important did I realize how much she meant to me.
肯定：S + beV/助V, too.＝ So + beV/助V + S
Ex:(1) I am a good student. My brother is, too. (My brother is a good student, too.)
I am a good student. ＝ So is my brother.
(2)I study English. Curly does, too. (Curly studies English, too.)
I study English. ＝ So does Curly.
否定：S + beV not/助V not, either. ＝ Neither + beV/助V + S
Ex:(1) I am not a good student. My brother isn’t, either. (My brother isn’t a good student.)
(2)I am not a good student. ＝ Neither is my brother.
(3)I don’t study English. Curly doesn’t study, either. (Curly doesn’t study English, either.)
(4)I don’t study English. ＝ Neither does Curly.
1. I have often thought it would be a blessing if each human being were stricken blind and deaf for a few days at some time during his early adult life.（見第1行）
(1)it would be a blessing ... early adult life是與「現在事實相反」的假設語氣。
If + S + were/Vpt, S + would/should/could/might + V
例：If I were a rich man, I would buy a bighouse for my parents and take them to travel around the world.
If I had a computer like yours, I would be very happy.
(2) strike v. [T] (strike, struck, struck/stricken) 打；衝撞；攻擊
(3) a few「一些」接可數N
例：a few friends
(4) at some time 「在某一時刻」。some是指不明確的「某一」，而非數量上的「一些」。例：I came here for some reason.（基於某種理由我來到此地）
I do have some good reasons for doing this.（做這件事我的確是理由充分）
2. Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight; silence would teach him the joys of sound.（見第3行）
(1) 這一句承接上一句的假設語氣， him指的是each human being ，兩句都用would + V。
make + O + OC(V, Adj, N)
例：The naughty boy made his mother crazy.
(3) appreciative adj. 有欣賞能力的；讚賞的
be appreciative (of sth.)（對……）感激的
例：I'm very appreciative of your financial and emotional support during the last few years.
(4) sight 視覺（= vision）
3. I might have been incredulous had I not been accustomed to such responses, for long ago I became convinced that the seeing see little.（見第8行）
(1) I might have been ... such rersponses是與「過去事實相反」的假設語氣並倒裝
If + S + had + p.p. ..., S + would/could/might/should + have + p.p.
倒裝→ Had + S + p.p. ..., S + would/should/could/might + have + p.p. ....
例：If he had been more careful, the accident would not have happened.
→ Had he been more careful, the accident would not have happened.
(2) be/become convinced that + S + V 相信……
例：I'm convinced that I can do the job well.
(3) the seeing 明眼人
the + 某些形容詞，可以指某一類人或物。
the rich富人 the blind盲人
the dead死人 the deaf失聰的人
(4) little adv. 少的，修飾動詞see
例：He sleeps very little.
例：My father loves my mother very much.
4. I, who cannot see, find hundreds of things to interest me through mere touch.（見第12行）關代修飾I (非限定)
(1) through prep.（= by means of）藉著
例：Power grabbed through violence will not last long.
5. In spring I touch the branches of trees hopefully in search of a bud, the first sign of awakening Nature after her winter's sleep.（見第16行）
(1) in search of 尋找……
(2) "the first sign of awakening Nature after her winter's sleep" 是前面bud的同位語
6. I am delighted to have the cool waters of a brook rush through my open fingers.（見第19行）
(1) be delighted to + V 感到高興去（做……）
例：She is delighted to have a new roommate.
have + O + V（此動作對O來說是主動時）使…做…
例：They had Tommy do a lot of work without paying him a cent.
have + O + p.p.（此動作對O來說是被動時）使…被…
My father had his car washed and polished at the gas station yesterday.
7. To me a lush carpet of pine needles or spongy grass is more welcome than the most luxurious Persian rug.（見第21行）
(1) welcome adj. 受歡迎的
例：A simple loving card is more welcome to me than an expensive gift.
8. If I can get so much pleasure from mere touch, how much more beauty must be revealed by sight.（見第24行）
(1) 修飾比較級的副詞：much、a lot、far、a great deal、a little
例：The patient feels much better today.
(2) must 表「肯定的推測」
must + V 表示「對現在事物肯定的推測」
例：She must be very rich. Look at the diamond necklace she wears.
must + have + p.p. 表「對過去事物肯定的推測」
例：It must have rained last night. The ground was wet this morning.
9. Yet, those who have eyes apparently see little.（見第25行）關代修飾those
(1) yet（= however）但是，然而
(2) those pron. = those people
例：God helps those who help themselves.
10. It is human, perhaps, to appreciate little that which we have and to long for that which we have not, but it is a great pity that in the world of light the gift of sight is used only as a mere convenience rather than as a means of adding fullness to life.（見第27行）
(1) it is + adj. + to + V
例：It is human to be afraid of death. We must be very brave to have the courage to face death.
(2) that which we have 我們所擁有的 that which = what
(3) long for 渴望……
(4) be used as 被當作……使用
例：It is a great pity that the new invention was used as a weapon to kill people.
(5) rather than 而不是……
例：He wanted to be an artist rather than an accountant.
11. If, by some miracle, I were granted three seeing days, I should want to see the people whose kindness and gentleness and companionship have made my life worth living.（見第32行）關代所有格，修飾the people
(1) be granted （= be given）被賜給
例：He was granted more than twenty honorary degrees.
(2) make my life worth living 使我的人生值得活下去
12. First I should like to gaze long upon the face of my dear teacher, Mrs. Anne Sullivan Macy, who came to me when I was a child and opened the outer world to me.（見第38行）關代形容Mrs. Anne Sullivan Macy(非限定)
(1) gaze upon 凝視，gaze介系詞常接at
例：He just stood there, gazing up at the clear blue sky.
(2) long adv. (= for a long time)
例：I'm sorry that I'm late. Have you been waiting long?
(3) opened the outer world to me 指Anne Sullivan帶她進入文字的世界，使她從此眼盲心不盲，耳聾心不聾。
open ... to ... 為某人開啟……（抽象的用法）
例：A storybook can open a wonderful world to children.
13. I should want not merely to see the outline of her face, so that I could cherish it in my memory, but to study that face and find in it the living evidence of the sympathetic tenderness and patience with which she accomplished the difficult task of my education.（見第42行）
(1) not merely ... but ... = not only ... but also ... 「不僅……而且……」，在這裡連接to see...和to study...
例：Gardening for me is not merely a job, but a way of life.
(2) so that ... 連接詞片語，後面所接的子句表示「目的」，意為「以便於」。
例：He got up very early so that he could catch the first bus.
(3) tenderness and patience with which she accomplished the difficult task of my education = She accomplished the difficult task of my education with sympathetic tenderness and patience.
14. I do not know what it is to see into the heart of a friend through that "window of the soul," the eye.（見第50行）虛S 真S
(1) see into 透視
(2) window of the soul 靈魂之窗，後面的the eye是其同位語。
15. I am denied that deeper understanding of them which I am sure would come through sight of them, through watching their reactions to various expressions and circumstances, through noting the immediate and fleeting reactions of their eyes and countenance.（見第56行）
(1) be denied something 被拒絕給予某物
例：The boy was denied the pleasure of playing computer games.
16. How much easier, how much more satisfying it is for you who can see to grasp quickly the essential qualities of another person by watching the subtleties of expression, the quiver of a muscle, the flutter of a hand.（見第61行）
(1) How + adj. + it + is + (for someone) + to V ....
例：How difficult it is to truly understand another person.
(2) grasp v. [T] 了解；緊握
例：I can't grasp the main point of this article about genetics.
17. Do not most of you seeing people grasp casually the outward features of a face and let it go at that?（見第65行）
(1) let it go (at that) 到此為止，不深入探索
例：Promise me you won't make the same mistake again and I'll let it go.
18. Some see more than others, but few see everything that is within the range of their vision.（見第71行）
(1) few = almost nobody語氣是否定的，不能使用a few。
(2) within the range of 在……範圍之內
19. I, who am blind, can give one hint to those who see: Use your eyes as if tomorrow you would be stricken blind.（見第73行）關代(非限定)
(1) as if 就...好像，後面經常接假設語氣子句。
例： He looked at her as if he would never see her again.
20. And the same method can be applied to other senses.（見第74行）
(1)apply ... to .../be applied to 應用於
例：You can apply this idea to your research.
21. Make the most of every sense. But of all the senses, I am sure that sight must be the most delightful.（見第79行）
(1) make the most of 好好利用……
(2) of all ... 在所有的……中
例：Of all flowers, she likes roses best.
I. Words for production
1. incredulously adv. 不肯輕信地；懷疑地
credulous adj. 輕信的，容易受騙的
be incredulous of/about sth. 不肯輕信……
例：The man laughed incredulously, not believing a word his wife said.
George was a credulous fool to have fallen for the scam.
Most people in the U.S. are incredulous of stories about ghosts.
3. a rough day 不順利的一天
a rough night 失眠的夜晚
a rough draft 草稿
例： I had a rough day.
4. awakening adj. 甦醒的
awaken curiosity 引起好奇心
例：It was like a miracle to see the dead desert awaken with such amazing vitality.
They did not expect the story would awaken anyone's sympathy.
7. live in luxury 生活奢侈
例：She never dreamed of living in luxury.
8. long adv. 長久地
long face 拉長了臉（表示不樂）
have a long way to go 尚有待努力
to make a long story short 長話短說
long for 渴望
as long as 只要（連接詞片語）
before long 不久（= soon）
例：The peace between the two countries did not last long.
As long as we continue to tolerate it, this kind of thing will happen again and again.
Before long they got married and moved to Chicago.
9. please v. [T, I] 討好，取悅
please adv. 請
pleasant adj. 令人愉快的
pleasing adj. 令人愉快的
pleased adj. 愉快的
hard/difficult to please 很難取悅
(It's) my pleasure. 我的榮幸。（禮貌用語）
with pleasure 非常樂意（回應別人的請求）
例：Some people are so critical that almost nothing can please them.
Take a sit, please.
He has a pleasant personality.
His progress in English writing was most pleasing to his teacher.
She is pleased with the result of the contest.
10. revelation n. [U, C] 表露；洩露
例：The movie star was angry about the revelation of his private life.
11. It is apparent that .... 顯然地
14. worth n. [U] 價值
worthy adj. 值得的
worth + V-ing 值得……
be worth someone's while to do something 值得某人花時間去做某事
be worthy of trust 值得信賴
例：I'm wondering if it is worth my while to do it for only two hundred dollars.
18. able adj. 能
unable adj. 不能
enable ... to ... 使……能夠做某事
be able to + V 能夠做某事
the disabled 殘障人士
例：I am sure we are able to reach a conclusion which satisfies both sides.
The building was designed with many conveniences for the disabled.
19. detection n. [U] 偵查
detector n. [C] 偵測器
detective novel/story 偵探小說／故事
police detective 警探
metal/smoke detector 金屬／煙霧偵測器
例：The stealth jet fighter can avoid detection by enemy radar.
I'm reading a detective novel.
20. feel n. [sing.] 觸感，感受 v. [I] 感覺，感受
feeling n. [C] 感覺
feel it important/necessary to do something 覺得做某事很重要／有必要
feel like + N 想要
feel like + doing something 想要（做某事）
have/get a feeling that 感覺到……
例：We feel sorry about her situation.
Do you feel like a cup of tea?
I don't feel like going to the movie by myself.
I suddenly got a feeling that he was not happy.
22. muscular adj. 肌肉發達的
pull a muscle 拉傷肌肉
例：Those students of gym class are tall, strong, and muscular.
25. acquaint oneself with something 認識，了解
get/become acquainted with someone 認識
a nodding acquaintance 點頭之交
例：Have you acquainted yourselves with all the rules you need to know in this camp?
This is a good opportunity to get acquainted with each other.
He is only a nodding acquaintance, not a close friend.
26. surrounding adj. [用在名詞前] 環繞的，周圍的
be surrounded by something 被……環繞
surround something with something 以……環繞……
例：The old castle was surrounded with very dense forests.
A lot of people from the surrounding area come to this church on Sundays.
She's always been surrounded by people who adore her.
27. startlingly adv. 使人震驚地
startled adj. 震驚的
it is startling to V ……很令人吃驚
be startled to V ……而感到吃驚
例：Survivors of the disaster told us startlingly sad stories.
There was a startled expression on her face when she saw a monkey riding a bike down the street.
It was startling to learn that nobody ever visited him in the hospital.
I was startled to see that my ex-girlfriend would be conducting my job interview.
28. spectacles n. [pl.] 眼鏡
make a spectacle of oneself 出糗
例：My father wears a pair of silver-rimmed spectacles.
Ray made a spectacle of himself by getting drunk at the company's year-end banquet.
29. range v. [I] 涵蓋
top of the range 最好的
a wide range of 各式各樣的
range from ... to ... 涵蓋
例：They sell a wide range of electrical appliances.
The students' ages range from 12 to 18.
30. hint v. [I, T] 提示，暗示
give/drop a hint 給暗示
a broad/heavy/strong hint 明白的提示
a gentle/subtle/vague hint 不明白的暗示
hints on sth. ……的秘訣
例：Do you know what he was hinting at?
IDIOMS AND PHRASES
1. now and then 有時候，偶爾 = (every)now and again = (every)once in a while
= from time to time
例：Every now and again I hang out with my old high school buddies.
I usually watch DVDs at home, but once in a while, I go to the movies.
My mother calls me from time to time, but I haven't seen her in a long time.
3. be accustomed to 習慣於，to是介系詞後加N, Ving
become/get/grow accustomed to something 變得習慣……
例：Adam's eyes slowly grew accustomed to the dark.
4. be worthy of 值得
be worth something 價值……
例：This antique vase must be worth a lot of money.
it is worthwhile to do something ……是值得的
例：I think it is worthwhile to buy this expensive sofa because it will look great in our living room.
it is worthwhile doing something ……是值得的
例：It is always worthwhile checking over all your answers before you hand in a test.
It is Chris, who just finished having surgery and came back from the hospital. Everything goes fine with me. The medical treatment still needs to last a few months. What I feel uncomfortable is I cannot have fun with you. You know, Chris is the person who never stops. Getting together with you is especially interesting and always makes me young. Haha! Tako and Momo still make some fun for us? Do you all pay attention to the substitute teachers? Do you have fun with them? Perhaps it is lucky for you to have different kinds of teachers. I believe you can learn a lot from them.
Though I have been feeling tired, I still have some energy to read your paper. Hey, the ones who do not finish homework and the ones who do not work hard must be very careful.
Don't forget: Hmmmm... Chris is always watching you!
PS. 讀完stress那課, 要到Moodle做討論
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