2009年12月5日 星期六

L9 Giant Pandas: An Endangered Species

blame (sb.) for (sth.)
blame (sth.) on (sb.)
He blamed me for the accident. (=He blamed the accident on me.)
他把這次意外事件歸咎於我。

obvious vs. concrete

obvious: clear; easy to see, recognize or understand
concrete: clear and certain, or real and existing in a form that can be seen or felt:

basically 在根本上
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I.  Why is the title named "Giant Pandas"?
Compared with cats, pandas are much bigger.

Explanation:
至於大熊貓的「大」字,應該是個形容詞,描繪panda渾圓壯碩的模樣(一隻成年的貓熊可以重達一百多公斤,相當於兩個成年人的體重)。而貓在人的印象中,不管長得多肥,都不屬於龐然大物。所以,在熊貓前面加個大字,才能彰顯出牠跟貓在size上的區別!事實上,貓熊稱不上giant,因為四十隻貓熊才與一隻大象等重。

II. Vocabulary 補充

I. Words for production

1. on the verge of extinction 瀕臨絕種;extinct volcano 死火山

2. marine life 海洋生物

字首en- 形成的動詞表示「使……」,常常可以從後面的字推測整個動詞的意思。
en + able(能夠的)→ enable(使能夠)
en + large(大的)→ enlarge(增大)
en + rich(豐富的)→ enrich(使豐富)
en + danger(危險)→ endanger(危害)
en + joy(歡樂)→ enjoy(享受)

4. rare species可以指真的罕見的動植物,也可以用來開玩笑地說某種人很少見。

5. main course 主菜;main idea 主旨

6. deforestation n. [U] 砍伐森林;deforest v. [T] 砍伐,移除……上的樹木; rain forest 雨林

字首de- 代表的是「相反」、「減少」、「移除」的意思。
例如:decrease 減少
   defrost 解凍
   dehumidify 除濕
   delete 刪除
   deny 否認

7. agriculture n. [U] 農業; forestry 林業;fishery 漁業; stock farming 畜牧業;dairy farming 酪農業;
aquaculture 水產養殖業; mining 礦業

8. threaten v. [T] 威脅;threat n. [C] 威脅;under threat (of sth.) 受到(……的)威脅;pose a threat to 對……造成威脅

9. starve v. [I, T] 挨餓;starvation n. [U] 挨餓;starving adj. 挨餓的;starved adj. 挨餓的;be starving to death 快要餓死了;be starved to death 餓死了

10. worse adj. 更糟的;worse n. [U] 更糟的人、事、物;worse adv. 更糟地;worsen v. [I, T](使)惡化;go from bad to worse 每況愈下;for better or (for) worse 不管怎樣

11. bloom v. [I] 開花;蓬勃發展( mushroom快速生長、發展);bloom n. [C](尤指開在植物上的)花朵;in full bloom 開滿了花

12. 帶 -mate的複合字,都有同伴的意思:
teammate 隊友
classmate 同班同學
schoolmate 同校同學
playmate 玩伴
roommate 室友
running mate 競選搭檔
soul mate 心靈伴侶

13. fur n. [C, U] 毛,毛皮;furless adj. 沒毛的;furry adj. 毛茸茸的

14. 跟predator相反的就是prey:
prey n. [U] 獵物
a bird of prey 猛禽
be easy prey 容易下手的目標
be/fall prey to sth. 成為……下的犧牲者

15. fortune-teller 算命師;tell sb's fortune 算命;make a (big/small) fortune 發財;cost a (small) fortune 所費不貲

16. fund n. [C] 基金會;基金;funds n. (pl.) 資金

17. preserve v. [T] 保存;醃漬(食物);preserve n. [C, U] 蜜餞;preservation n. [U] 保存

18. kilo- 這個字首有1000倍的意思。
kilometer 公里(長度單位meter公尺的1000倍)
kiloliter 公秉(容量單位liter公升的1000倍)
kilowatt 千瓦(電力單位watt瓦特的1000倍)

19. cub是特別指某些肉食性動物的幼獸,例如獅、熊、狼等。

III. Grammar
-- Passive Voice 被動式
被動式文法

A. 何謂主動,被動?
主動句----主詞是動詞的動作者 ◆我打破窗戶。
被動句-----主詞是動詞的接受者 ◆窗戶被我打破。

B. 何時使用被動式`? 主詞動詞 ......。

C. 被動式的基本型就是be+pp;但時態不同,被動句的類型 亦會有變化。

1. 現在式的被動------am,are,is +p.p.  e.g. English is mostly used nowadays.

2. 過去式的被動------were,was +p.p. e.g. A dear John letter was just sent to him.

3. 未來式的被動------will be + p.p.   e.g. The project will be finished by tomorrow.

4. 現在進行式的被動------am,are,is + being+ p.p. e.g. Meansures are being taken to help animals.
5. 過去進行式的被動------were,was + being+ p.p.

6. 現在完成式的被動------have,has + been + p.p. e.g. The game has been won by the Elephants.
7. 過去完成式的被動------had + been + p.p.
8. 未來完成式的被動------will have been + p.p.

D. 特殊情形的被動句

1. 授與動詞的被動(sell give,buy)
◆ He gave me a pen = He gave a pen to me.
= I was given a pen by him.= A pen was given to me by him.

2. 感官動詞的被動( see, hear,watch)
在主動句中,感官動詞之後的to + 需省略 to,但在被動句中 to 不可省略
◆ I saw him run along the street.= He was seen to run along the street by me.

E. 何時該省略 by + 受詞

1. 受詞是所皆知 (e.g. people )
2. 受詞不知是誰或不必知道是誰 (e.g. someone, they)

F. 含有助動詞的被動句
被動句:主詞 + 助動詞 + be +p.p. + by + 受詞

-- 不定詞 (to V)


不定詞在句子中可以作名詞、形容詞、副詞等。

1. 不定詞作名詞
To learn a foreign language is not easy.(主語用)
I forgot to hand in my paper.(受詞用)

3. 不定詞作形容詞
Will you help me to water the plant when I go out of town?(受詞補語用)
Disney's greatest wish was to be a famous artist.(主詞補語用)


4. 不定詞作副詞
He has a lot of questions to ask. 
To be honest, I don't like you at all.
She was exhausted, so she went home to take a rest.

Assignment:
Topic: How Much You Know about Endangered Species

1. Choose two endangered species you are interested in.
2. Introduce what they look look, where they live, how they survive, and how people do to protect them.

2 則留言:

寶純 提到...

chris,我真的不得不愛死你!!!
你對我們真的無比的好





只是我有一個疑問
我一直想要整理單字本
但是不知道該用什麼方式整理
有沒有什麼方式可以提供參考
(我希望這單字本可以擁有
高中一年級至四年級所學的單字用法)

Chris 提到...

You may do in two ways. One, write the words you encounter but you are not really familiar with on the vocabulary book (the red one you are reading right now). Or you may prepare a clean notebook. Then, just write the words you are not familiar with on it. Of course, you may categorize them by using parts of speech.