2010年9月19日 星期日

B5L4 Mysteries of the Past (史上的奧秘)


1. With the vast knowledge of modern science, it seems there is nothing, or very little, that we do not know or will not know eventually.(見第4行)

(1) seem這個動詞在句型轉換時,要特別注意它的時態
It seems that your brother was very popular in college.
→ Your brother seemed to be very popular in college.

(2) 另外seem的否定用法,可有二種不同的寫法:
It seems that Kate never gets tired of studying.
 = Kate never seems to get tired of studying.
 = Kate seems never to get tired of studying.

2. It is estimated that the largest of the pyramids took twenty years to build and involved the labor of a hundred thousand workers moving 2.6 million blocks of stone into place.(見第14行)

(1) It is believed/estimated/said + that子句.
= People believe/estimate/say + that子句.
= S + be believed/estimated/said + to V.

(2) to move ... into place 將……放在(合適的、指定的)位置

3. How these massive blocks of stones were lifted and moved without the use of modern technology is a question that has never been fully answered, although many theories have been suggested.(見第17行)
(1) 此處 how + 子句形成間接問句做 is 的主詞。
a. 當主詞
Where James goes for vacation will depend on how much money he has.
Who killed the millionaire will not be revealed until the end of the story.

b. 當受詞
I wonder who broke the window.
People are wondering how the team managed to win the championship.

c. 當主詞補語
The important thing is what a man does, not what he says.
The decision we have to make is who should be sent to the meeting.

d. 當受詞補語
You may call him what you wish.
His mother made him who he is today.

3. They may have been placed on wooden rollers or on brick ramps.(見第24行)
(1) 助動詞may表猜測,其後加have + p.p. 表對從前事物的猜測,若其後加原形動詞,則表對現在狀況的猜測。
(2) have been placed 是完成式的被動語態。
4. Even more amazing, though, is that such an ancient society would have had the technical ability to design these magnificent structures, which include many inner rooms and tunnels, and that they would have been able to organize so many workers to complete such a task.(見第25行)

(1) 這是個補語倒裝句,因主詞是個子句,故動詞是第三人稱單數的is。
即為 That such an ancient society would have had the technical ability to design these magnificent structures is even more amazing, ....

Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
Enclosed is the gift for your birthday.
Happy are those who can make others happy.
Gone are the happy days when Mom was alive and took such good care of us.

(2) though adv. (= despite this)
例:I agree it’s a good car. The problem, though, is it’s too small for us.

though conj. (= despite the fact that)
例:Though he is good at math, the test was still too difficult for him.
though conj. (= but)
例:I think he likes me, though I’m not completely sure.

(3) 注意此句and that they would...中,and之後的that不可省略,用來提示它和前面的that子句為對等的關係。

5. Although many of the original stones are no longer standing, those [that are (still standing)] measure up to five meters in height and are topped with lintels, or horizontally placed stones that create a sort of roof around the circle.(見第31行)

(1) 此處的those為主詞,其動詞為measure ,中間的that are為關係子句,are之後省略了still standing,故原句可寫為”...those that are still standing measure up to five meters in height....”

high → in height 高
wide → in width 寬
long → in length 長
This stone is five meters high.
= This stone is five meters in height.
= The height of this stone is five meters.

(2) be topped (off) with 上面覆蓋……
例:The cake is topped (off) with a layer of cherries, and it looks delicious.

(3) 副詞horizontally用來修飾後面的placed,而placed則是p.p.用來當形容詞,形容後面的名詞stones。意思就是被水平方向放置的石頭。

(4) sort在此當「種類」解釋,故等於kind。

6. Moreover, it remains a mystery just how these huge stones were brought to the site and placed in such a specific circular arrangement.(見第38行)

(1) 此處的it為虛主詞,真正的主詞為後面的”how + 子句”(間接問句)。原來的句子應是:
Just how these huge stones were brought to the site and placed in such a specific circular arrangement remains a mystery. 但主詞實在太長,所以用虛主詞 it 代替。

(2) remain v. [I] 的用法:
例:The mystery remains unsolved; nobody knows what happened to the missing girl.

7. As with the pyramids, it would have taken many workers and many days--or rather years--to accomplish.(見第40行)

(1) as with the pyramids 和金字塔的情形一樣
例:John is late again, as is often the case.
  He was an Englishman, as they perceived by his accent.
  As everybody knows, baseball has always been my first passion.
(2) 此處的it為代名詞,代替Stonehenge。
(3) rather在此解釋為「更確切些」,常接在or之後,修正或補充上文。
例:He is my friend, or rather he was my friend.

8. Because of its mysterious origins, the site has been associated with many legends, perhaps most famously with the stories of King Arthur.(見第44行)

(1) perhaps most famously with  = perhaps the site has been associated most famously with
(2) King Arthur 亞瑟王(十三至十五世紀間出現許多有關他和他所領導的圓桌武士的故事)。

9. According to one legend, the stones were magically flown into place by Merlin, the famous wizard of Arthurian legend.(見第46行)
(1) Merlin是亞瑟王傳說故事中擁有無邊法力的巫師,也是他助亞瑟登上王位的。
(2) Arthurian是Arthur的形容詞,Arthurian legend表示是「亞瑟王時代的傳奇故事」。在英文裡,對於一些具有代表性的人,我們常常會將他們的名字加上形容詞的字尾 -ian,表示「具備那種特色的」意思。

Dickensian London 狄更斯(Charles Dickens)筆下的倫敦
the Freudian School 佛洛依德(Sigmund Freud)學派
Marxian Socialism 馬克斯(Karl Marx)式的社會主義

10. When European explorers arrived at this remote Pacific island in 1722, they discovered its coast was lined with hundreds of god--like statues carved from volcanic rock, each of them facing inland, away from the sea.(見第49行)

(2) each of them facing inland 每一座都面向內陸 = and each of them faced inland

11. All of them are nearly identical, except that some are taller than others, with the tallest being two stories in height and weighing several tons.(見第56行)

(1) except在此為介系詞,後可加that子句,that也可省略。
(2) with在此表示某一動作的伴隨狀態,其後的受詞常接有受詞補語。該補語常為分詞,表主動,用現在分詞 (V-ing),表被動,用過去分詞(pp)。
例:He stood right there with his eyes blinking.

12. Once again, it is difficult for us to imagine how people with only primitive technology would have been able to move these huge rocks from the area where they were quarried.(見第58行)

(1) once again表示事情已經發生不只一次。課文中表示之前已經很難想像巨石陣是怎麼建造出來的,現在所提到的復活島,同樣地再次挑戰我們的想像力。
例:Once again, he failed us by not showing up for the meeting on time.

(2) where they were quarried是關係子句,修飾前面的area。先行詞為地方時,關係子句要用where。從……(採石場)採得

13. Covering more than five hundred square kilometers, it has been called the biggest drawing ever created.(見第73行)
(1) 這是一個分詞構句的結構,原句可寫成:Because it covers (包含,有) more than five hundred square kilometers, it has been called the biggest drawing that has ever been created.

14. Overlying the drawings of birds, animals, insects and flowers is a complex network of intersecting lines, some of which are hundreds of miles long and extend across the desert plains and up into the mountains.(見第78行)
(1) 本句是個倒裝句
(2) 注意此句逗點後面的which子句可改寫為:..., and some of the lines are hundreds of miles long....

15. One of the greatest wonders about the Nasca Lines is that they show the Nascan people to have had highly developed surveying skills.(見第82行)

(1) 【祕魯】神秘的納斯卡線Nazca Lines
此句中的show作「證明」解,其受詞之後可用to + 原形V作受詞補語。
例:I can show the plan to be faulty.

(2) 此處to之後接have + p.p. 表示在過去所發生的動作。
例:Nobody believes the lady to have been a beauty when she was young.

16. Like most other ancient structures, they are believed to have had some religious or ritualistic function, perhaps meant as a means of communicating with the gods.(見第90行)

(1) 此處的meant為過去分詞,是分詞構句放在句尾的形式。可改寫為 “... and perhaps they were meant as a means of communicating with the gods.”

17. Taken together, these mysteries point to yet another mystery: For whatever purpose, just how did human beings first get the inspiration to build and to create such structures?(見第94行)

(1) 這是表示被動用法的分詞構句。原句應為:When these mysteries are taken together, they....
(2) yet常用來強調another。如果把這些奧秘全部放在一起,它們都指向另一個奧秘…

(3) whatever的各種用法:
a. whatever在此當形容詞用,後面接名詞。
例:Take whatever book you like; I don’t need them anyway.
b. whatever當代名詞
例:You can do whatever you like just as long as you don’t disturb the neighbors.
c. whatever當副詞(= whatsoever)。
例:I have no interest whatever in anything you say about Tim.