2010年9月2日 星期四

B5L1 Can Animals Think?( 動物具有思考的能力嗎?)

1. Can they make decisions based on information?(見第1行)
(1) 其他利用make當動詞的慣用語: make a wish 許願,make money 賺錢,make a fire 生火,make a sound/noise 發出聲音/噪音,make progress 進步,make a judgment 判斷,make a suggestion 建議,make a mistake 犯錯,make an effort 努力,make a change 改變

(2) base on: on the basis of 以……為基礎;根據

2. Now, many of them believe that some animals have the brain power to understand new situations, make decisions, and plan ahead. (見第3行)
the brain power: intellectual capacity 智力;聰明

3. Dandy knew where the grapefruit was, but when the other chimps were in the area, he pretended that he did not know the location.(見第10行)
 (1) where the grapefruit was是間接問句,當knew的受詞。
1. 間接問句應採直述句的形式(疑問詞+S+V)。
2. 句尾標點符號看主要子句來決定。 
I don’t know where he lives.
I wonder what he wants.
Do you know why she got mad at him?

(2) the other + N 表示除了Dandy之外所有的猩猩。
(3) pretend v. [I, T] 假裝 pretend + to V 假裝做某事 pretend + that 子句 假裝……

4. Later, when the other chimps fell asleep, he went right to the spot where the grapefruit was hidden, dug it up, and ate it.(見第12行)
(1) 主要子句的句構是由三個動詞並列(went、dug、ate)的方式呈現(V1, V2, and V3)。
(2) where引導關係副詞子句修飾spot。

5. A green-backed female heron in Japan also did something surprising.(見第15行)
(1) green-backed是複合形容詞(compound adjectives),類似結構的字如:black-hearted, double-sided, good-natured, long-legged, warm-hearted, white-collared 等。

(2) 一般形容詞都放名詞前面,但若修飾複合不定代名詞如:nothing, something, everything, anything, someone, anyone, everyone, nobody, somebody, everybody, anybody,則形容詞要緊接在複合不定代名詞之後。

6. When she saw some minnows swimming around in a pond, she came up with a way to catch them.(見第18行)
(1) see為感官動詞,後面加現在分詞,強調看到時,動作正在進行。若加原形動詞,則強調事實狀態。加上過去分詞,則指被動的狀態。感官動詞還有:hear/feel/watch ...等等。
例:I heard Sam and Ted talking about you the other day.   
I saw the ball thrown from the window, but I don’t know who threw it.

7. First, she found a twig and broke it into small pieces.(見第21行)
(1) 樹的構造,由底而上,分別為root→trunk→branch→twig→leaf。
(2) break something into: to separate something into two or more parts 將……折斷/分為

8. She even moved it to a place in the pond where it would attract the minnows.(見第22行)
(1) 此處兩個it都是指the twig。 (2) where引導副詞子句,修飾a place in the pond。

9. Finally, when the minnows swam over to the twig, she was able to catch one for her lunch.(見第23行) (1) one = a minnow 以下是有關不定代名詞one的用法:

1. one用以代替前(後)的名詞,以避免重複。
(1) 前面無修飾語時: If you need a bicycle, I can lend you one (= a bicycle).  
Mr. Anderson was a clerk at the supermarket ten years ago, and remains one (= a clerk) now.  
Do you have tomatoes? I’d like to buy some (= tomatoes).

(2) 前面有修飾語時:
  I don’t like this red shirt. Do you have a blue one?
This is definitely a bad idea. We should think of a better one.  

注意:此外 one (1) 不可以代替不可數名詞;(2) 不可以放數字之後;(3) 不可以放所有格

注意: one = a + N ;   it = the + N

Do you have a fax machine? Yes, I have one (= a fax machine).
Do you have the book? Yes, I have it ( = the book).

10. But what Alex once did outside of the laboratory was even more impressive.(見第35行)
(1) what = something that;以what引導的子句為主詞,動詞要用單數。
例:What the child needs is not only money but also a family.   
What he said was quite unthinkable.

(2) 修飾比較級,可以用 even 、 still 、 much 、 far 、 slightly 、 a lot 、 a little 、 a bit等。
例:Michael is quite tall, but his brother is even taller.

11. It seems that Alex either thought he was being punished for doing something wrong, or simply felt afraid. (見第39行)
(1) either A or B 「不是A就是B」,A 和B的結構要對等 例:Either you or he is to blame.(動詞與靠近的主詞一致)   
You may either pay for your meal or be taken to the police.

12. In either case, his trainer couldn’t help but think that Alex had learned to use language to express his thoughts.(見第41行)
After hearing his words, Alex’s trainer really felt that Alex had learned to express his own thoughts.
(1) in either case 不管是哪一種情況;兩種情況都……
(2) can’t help but + 原形V = can’t help + V-ing 不禁……;忍不住……

例:Upon hearing his joke, Anna couldn’t help but burst out laughing.   
When I saw that Jack had his shoes on the wrong feet, I couldn’t help but laugh.   
= When I saw that Jack had his shoes on the wrong feet, I couldn’t help laughing.

13. He would neither eat nor sleep.(見第51行)
He would not eat, and he would not sleep. neither ... nor ... 「既不……也不……」;兩邊所接的語詞結構必須對等。
例:I don’t understand why you’re fond of Ken. He’s neither rich nor handsome.   
Neither my sister nor I want to go to the movie with you.(動詞與靠近的主詞一致)

14. It certainly seemed like he had fallen in love.(見第53行)
seem like 可以加子句或名詞。
例:It may not seem like a good idea, but it’s feasible.   
It seemed like he didn’t quite agree with you.

1. 比較seem, appear, look, sound This appears to be a useful tool.(比seem正式些) 
Stanley looked upset.(指外表看起來似乎)
She sounded happy on the phone.(指聽起來似乎)

2. seem like/as if/as though + S + V
   It seems like he doesn’t want us to get involved.
   It seemed as if the end of the war had come.
  It seems as though today’s young people don’t care about saving money.

【注意】seem 後不能只接as,一定要接as if/though + 子句。

15. In Italy, scientists showed that an octopus could learn how to perform a task by watching another octopus do it.(見第54行)
(1) perform: to do or carry out something perform a task/job/duty/function 做/執行一項工作/職務 與「做」有關的動詞,請參考本課Word Power。
(2) watch為感官動詞,後面加原形動詞do。

16. In this experiment, an octopus who did not know how to open a jar to get to a crab inside was allowed to watch another octopus who did know how.(見第57行)
(1) 以關係代名詞who所引導的形容詞子句 (who did not know how to open a jar to get to a crab inside) 界定先行詞octopus,指那是隻「不會打開罐子抓罐內螃蟹」的章魚。

(2) 助動詞do/does/did + 原形動詞強調肯定,表示「確實」;「的確」。 例:Sam and I don’t see each other very often, but when we do meet, we talk for hours.

(3) 畫線的how指的就是how to open a jar to get to a crab inside。

17. After observing how the second octopus did it, the first octopus was able to open the jar himself.(見第60行)
After + V-ing, S + V或S + V + after + V-ing用法類似於分詞構句,因主詞相同而省略。另外before/while/when 也可用此句型。

18. Until recently, many scientists had thought that only mammals could learn by watching others.(見第61行)
(1) until recently 「一直到最近」,表示科學家們一直到不久前都還認為只有智力較高等的哺乳類動物會藉由觀察來學習。
(2) 算到過去某時的經驗,所以主要子句用過去完成式。

19. Stories like these raise many questions about animals and the way they think and behave.(見第64行)
(1) like = such as 像;如
例:I had an experience like this about 6 years ago when I bought my first digital camera.
(2) raise questions 提出問題 以下是常見與raise搭配的名詞:raise your hand, raise money/funds, raise a child/a family, raise doubts/fears, raise one’s spirits, raise one’s eyebrows, raise one’s voice, raise the roof等。
(3) the way + S + V ……的方式
例:I like the way my sister danced--she looked very graceful.   
Judging from the way Tom looked at Sally, I think he has fallen in love with her!

31. It seems that animals are capable of more than just processing information like a robot.(見第65行)
(1) be capable of + V-ing/N 能夠 = be able to + V
例:The boy was only 7 years old, but he was capable of looking after himself.   
I’d like to take a vacation, but I don’t seem able to find the time.

(2) more than 不只 例:What they care about is more than their son’s academic performance.   
What she has done is more than what a teacher is required to do.

32. Perhaps their behavior is the result of more than just instinct and memorized rules.(見第66行)
Maybe animals use more than instinct and memory. 格言 Second thoughts are best. 再思而後行。