2010年5月30日 星期日

B4L11 Doctors without Borders 無國界醫療團隊

課文解析

1. Their goal was to provide emergency medical aid, no matter where it was needed or who needed it.(第3行)
(1) no matter可以跟疑問詞what, who, which, where, when, how等連用,而這種用法跟whatever, whoever, whichever, wherever, whenever, however看情況有時可以互相代換。
例:No matter who wins, it will be a fair game.
  = Whoever wins, it will be a fair game.
  = It will be a fair game, whoever wins.

(2) 這裡的 who needed it 前省略了 no matter。對等連接詞 or 連接的兩部分原來應該是一致的,所以這個子句應為 no matter where it was needed or no matter who needed it,為了避免重複,因此省略後面的 no matter。

2. The philosophy of MSF is that all people have the right to medical care, regardless of race, religion, or nationality.(第11行)
(1) have the right to + N 有….的權利
     have the right to + V 有做…的權利

3. It has offices in twenty countries and has provided medical help in eighty-five countries, including Rwanda, Chechnya, Kosovo, Liberia, Afghanistan, and Iraq.(第17行)
including 意為「包含」,相關用法如下:
including 介系詞用法——
例:All of us will join the marathon race, including our homeroom teacher.
included 形容詞用法,放在名詞後——
例:All of us will join the marathon race, our homeroom teacher included.
inclusive of 形容詞用法,放在名詞前,較formal的用法——
例:The total cost will be $1,000, inclusive of postage and handling.

4. Only a small number of the volunteers are doctors.(第26行)
a number of 幾….;一些…..
a good number of 相當多的…
a large number of/large numbers of 許多的….;大量的…..
a great number of 許多的…..;大量的…..
a small number of 少數的…..;為數不多的……
以上的片語後要接複數名詞,動詞A與這複數名詞一致。
要注意的是,若是 the number of ... 作主詞時,動詞要與number一致,用單數。
例:The number of victims of the plane crash was estimated at over 200.

5. Most volunteers serve as nurses, medical technicians, sanitation engineers, and administrators.(第27行)
serve as 當「擔任…..職務」解。
例:Don’t worry. I’ll continue to serve as your secretary until a new one arrives.

6. Although the volunteers are paid only a small amount to cover their cost of living, they are rewarded in many other ways.(第29行)
(1) although的用法
(a) 儘管:despite the fact that
例:Although Mr. Peterson knew it was dangerous to go to Africa to practice medicine, he still decided to go.
(b) 但是:even though
例:She is really smart, although she seldom gets good grades at school.

(2) cover v. (金錢)足以付……;(範圍)占,(主題)涵蓋;蓋,遮蔽;報導
例:Jack is paid very little for the odd jobs he does---barely enough to cover his cost of living.   The rain forest covers a small part of this country.

7. One doctor said that practicing medicine at a refugee camp was like getting a hands-on lesson in the history of medicine, far away from his everyday experiences in a modern medical center.(第31行)
(1) 和 medicine 相關的用詞:
(a) medicine當「醫學」解。
practice medicine 行醫, study medicine 讀醫, preventive medicine 預防醫學
(b) medicine當「藥;醫藥」解。
a prescription medicine/prescribed medication 處方藥,
an over-the-counter medicine/medication 無醫師處方也可合法出售的藥
internal medicine 內服藥, external medicine 外用藥

8. Another volunteer summed up her work this way: ‘It’s a life-changing experience.”第34行) It is the kind of experience that can really change your way of thinking about life.
(1) sum up當「總結」解。
例:The only word that can sum up my situation during this time is CHAOS.
(2) life-changing是一複合形容詞,修飾後面的experience,當「改變一生的;改變生命的」解。
a life-changing experience = an experience that can change life
因此本句亦可寫成 It is an experience that can change one’s life.
【補充】
複合形容詞(compound adjectives)是指那些由兩個或兩個以上的字所組合起來的形容詞,字詞中間用連字號來連接。英文中的複合形容詞有許多不同的組合方式,以下是幾種常見的組合方式:
(a) N-N:           例:nineteen-century England
(b) adj.-N+ed   例:a red-haired woman
(c) 數詞-N       例:a five-story building
(d) N-V-ing       例:a time-consuming job
(e) N-p.p.          例:a sun-dried tomato
(f) adj.-V-ing      例:a good-looking young man
(g) adj.-p.p.        例:a red-painted roof
(h) adv.-V-ing     例:a fast-moving storm
(i) adv.-p.p.         例:a well-done steak
※ (h) 跟 (i) 裡的adv. 如果是以ly結尾,A字與字之間不需加上連字號。例如:
a brightly shining star, a carefully made cake

9. MSF is best known for its rapid response in times of crisis.(第37行)
(1) be known for 當「以…..出名」解。此片語加了一個best是強調「最…..」。
同義的片語有:be famous for; be noted for
例:Beitou is famous for its hot springs.

(2) in times of 在……的時候
in times like this 在像這樣的時候
good/hard times 安和樂利的時候/艱難時候 10. When a medical emergency occurs, MSF sends in an advance team to find out what kind of help is needed.(第39行)

(3) send in在此當「調動」解。
例:A large number of rescue workers were sent in to the disaster area.

11. ..., MSF sends in medical teams with emergency-room experience and fully equipped surgical tents, electrical generators, medicine, food, and clean water.(第49行)
(1)
MSF送來的醫療團隊具備緊急救護經驗,medical teams with emergency-room experience(軟體)以及醫療器材與補給品等medical team fully equipped surgical tents, electrical generators, ....(硬體)。
(2) 登山露營(camping)除了帳篷(tent)外,還可能需要攜帶的其它裝備:
backpack 背包,  first aid kit 急救箱, sleeping bag 睡袋, raincoat 雨衣, canteen 水壺, compass 羅盤, pocketknife 折疊式小刀, flashlight 手電筒, lighter/matches 打火機/火柴

12. However, out of 1,393 new drugs developed since 1975, only about 1% were targeted at these diseases.(第62行)
(1) out of 當「從…..之中」解。
例:One out of ten adults is susceptible to this disease.
(2) developed since 1975 為分詞片語,修飾前面的new drugs。在developed前面加上which/that were就形成關係代名詞所引導的形容詞子句。
(3) 1% were = 1% of the new drugs were
... percent of + N當主詞時,動詞要與of 後面的名詞一致。
例:Forty percent of his income comes from investments in stocks.

13. In 1999, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded MSF the Peace Prize for its “pioneering humanitarian work on several continents.”第64行)
(1) award的用法:
award somebody something (for...)
award something to somebody (for...)
例:The committee awarded John a silver medal for his bravery.
  The committee awarded a silver medal to John for his bravery.
  John was awarded a silver medal for his bravery.
  A silver medal was awarded to John for his bravery.

14. ... medical aid should not be tied to wars or politics, but only to the dignity of people.(第68行)
not ... but ... 當「不是….而是…..」解。
例:He came to the meeting not because he wanted to but because he had to.

15. He went on to say, “An organization like this shows how much can be accomplished with simple and affordable methods.”第69行)
(1) 文法/句型
go on + to V 表「接著做(另一事)…」之意。
go on to + N 表「接著(另一事)……」之意。
go on + V-ing 表「繼續做….」之意。
go on with + N 表「繼續……」之意。

Vocabulary
I. Words for production

1. N + N 
emergency aid 緊急援助,emergency room 急診室,emergency exit 緊急出口,emergency supplies 緊急供給,emergency landing 緊急迫降,emergency measures 緊急應變措施,in an emergency = in case of emergency 在緊急時

2.
Medicare n. [U] 醫療保險制度
emergency medical aid 緊急醫療救助
medical examination/checkup 健康檢查
medical practitioner 內/外科醫生;開業醫生
medicine chest 家庭用急救箱

4.
promote efficiency in 促進…..的效率
low/high efficiency 低/高效率
with efficiency 有效率地
be efficient in/at 勝任;有效率

6.
emergency medical relief 緊急醫療救援
on relief 接受救濟的
to one’s relief 令某人感到欣慰的
What a relief! 終於鬆了一口氣!
relief fund 救濟基金
relief pitcher 救援投手

7.
step into the spotlight 走到聚光燈下
in/under the spotlight 成為眾人焦點所在
put/turn the spotlight on ... 把焦點放到/轉移到…..

8.
be badly/critically/seriously wounded 傷勢嚴重
be mortally/fatally wounded 傷勢可能致命
be deeply wounded 深深受到傷害
a bullet wound 子彈傷口
a gunshot/knife/stab wound 槍傷/刀傷/刺傷
open old wounds 打開舊傷
rub salt in the wound 在傷口上灑鹽

11.
a laboratory technician 實驗室技術員
a hospital technician 醫院技術員
technical college (= polytechnic) 理工學院
technical support 技術支援
technical training 技術訓練

12.
sanitation worker 垃圾清潔工;清掃員
public sanitation 公共衛生
sanitary conditions 衛生狀況

13.
in reward for 作為….的獎賞
ask no reward 不圖回報
give a reward to somebody for something 為某事給某人報酬

14.
a refugee camp 難民營
a refugee government 流亡政府
take/seek refuge 避難到…..
find refuge in 躲在…….;逃避於…….

20.
其它同樣是名詞字尾加上ship變成另外一個名詞的例子:
friend n. [C] 朋友→ friendship n. [U] 友誼
citizen n. [C] 公民 → citizenship n. [U] 公民身份
champion n. [C] 冠軍→ championship n. [C] 冠軍;冠軍的地位
scholar n. [C] 學者 → scholarship n. [C] 獎學金

21.
be content with + N 滿足於…..
be content to + V 滿足於做……..
in peace and content 滿足平靜
to one’s heart’s content 心滿意足地;盡情地
content oneself with something 使滿足於………..

23.
well-educated adj. 有教養的
education/educational reform 教育改革
get a good education 獲得良好的教育
compulsory education 義務教育
moral/intellectual/physical education 德/智/體育
adult/vocational education 成人/職業教育
educational expenses/background 學雜費/教育背景;學歷
an educational film/television 教育性電影/電視節目
the Ministry/Minister of Education 教育部/部長

24.
humanitarian aid and supplies 人道救援物資
human immunodeficiency virus = HIV 人體免疫缺損病毒
human nature 人性
the human race 人類
human relations 人際關係
human resources 人力資源
human rights 人權

27.
a tropical island 一座熱帶小島
tropical fruit 一種熱帶水果
tropical rainforest/rain forest 熱帶雨林
tropical ecosystem 熱帶生態系統
the tropical zone 熱帶地區
the semitropical/subtropical zone 亞熱帶
the temperate zone 溫帶
the cold/frigid zone 寒帶

【常識補充】
熱帶地區大約分佈在赤道(the Equator)兩端,而南北兩極極圈(the polar circles)與赤道之間A為溫帶地區,北迴歸線(the Tropic of Cancer)到北極圈 (the Arctic Circle)是北半球溫帶地區(the north temperate zone);而南迴歸線(the Tropic of Capricorn)到南極圈(the Antarctic Circle)之間則為南半球溫帶地區(the south temperate zone),而從極圈到兩極的地方則為寒帶地區。亞熱帶地區是泛指緯度23.5度到35度左右,屬於最靠近熱帶地區的溫帶地區範圍。

28.
drug test 藥物檢測
do/use drugs/be on drugs 有吸毒/在吸毒
drug addict 有毒癮的人
drug dealer 毒販
drug abuse 毒品問題
drug overdose 吸毒過量
drug trafficking 毒品走私

II. Words for recognition
13.
a makeup kit 一個化妝包
a bike repair kit 一個修理腳踏車工具箱
a shaving kit 一個刮鬍刀工具箱
first aid kit 一個急救箱
survival kit 一個求生裝備箱
tool kit 一個工具箱

15.
an emergency generator 緊急發電機
generate profit/income/revenue 帶來利潤/所得/收入
generate excitement/interest/support 引起、招來刺激/興趣/支持
a generating station 發電廠
generation gap 代溝

3 則留言:

Lisa Chen 提到...

這次好多類似字喔
一個字也好多搭配字

Chris 提到...

No worries. You have to remember the first, original meaning of the word, so that you can overcome the new collocation of the targeted word.

Internet business at home automated system 提到...

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