2010年6月6日 星期日

B4L12 The 90-10 Secret (九一秘訣)

1. However, very few know and apply this secret.(見第1行)
(1) very few = very few people
(2) apply v. [I, T] 應用;運用
例:Several companies have applied the technology to the development of new products.
apply to A for B 向A申請B
We need to apply to the embassy for a visa if we want to visit that country.
apply to V (向某機關/單位)申請……
He applied to join the organization and was accepted.
apply to ... 適用於……
I’m afraid the rule doesn’t apply to people under 18.
apply A to B 把A運用於B
We need to apply the same principle to these two different cases.
apply A to B 塗敷A在B之上
The mother gently applied some lotion to the baby’s skin.
apply oneself 專心致力
Danny could do well in English class if he applied himself.

2. The result? Millions of people are suffering undeserved stress, trials, problems, and heartache.(見第2行)
suffer可為及物與不及物動詞,作為不及物動詞時常與介系詞 (from) 連用,後接疾病或具體的不適狀況。

3. They never seem to be successful or to enjoy life.(見第3行)
= It seems that these people are not successful and do not enjoy their lives.

It seems (to sb.) (that) S + V ....
It seems that it is going to rain.
It seems to me that we should consult the principal before making a decision.

S + seem to V ....
You seem to be very interested in baseball.
They seemed to enjoy the novel very much.

S + seem adj./like N
He seemed a bit bored listening to the speech.
It seemed like a wonderful idea.

4. Stress, lack of joy, and broken relationships are like a smothering blanket. (見第6行)
(1) relationship可指男女間的關係,或是親戚朋友、同事間的人際關係,如:long distance relationship(遠距離戀愛)、master-servant relationship(主僕關係)、father-son relationship(父子關係)
(2) a smothering blanket = a blanket that is very heavy and could smother a person
(3) 與blanket相關的常用片語還有:
a wet blanket 掃興的人
a security blanket (幼童隨身的)安全毛毯,指給人安全感或信心的事物

5. Worry consumes time, anger breaks friendships, and life seems dreary and is not enjoyed to the fullest.(見第7行)
(1) consume v. [T] 消耗(能源、時間、食物等)
例:Do we consume too many natural resources?
       Many growing teenagers consume large quantities of food every day.

(2) to the fullest 亦作 to the full「徹底地;充分地」。

6. 10 percent of life is made up of what happens to you. 90 percent of life is decided by how you react to the other 10 percent.(見第12行)
(1) A is made up of B 「A由B構成」
例:The freshman class is made up of 24 boys and 18 girls.
(2) what happens to you是名詞子句;how you react to the other 10 percent是名詞子句;兩子句皆做名詞用,分別為介系詞of及by的受詞。
(3) react to sth. 「回應;對……有所反應」
(4) the other + N 指的是「已知範圍的其餘部分」

some ... others ...「一些……其餘的……」(無既定範圍)
例﹕Some people like extreme sports; others don’t.
one ... the other ...「一個……另一個……」(已知為兩者)
例﹕I know you are not listening. My words are just going in one ear and out the other.
some (of the Ns)... the others ...「一些……其餘的……」(有既定範圍)
例﹕Some of the students failed the class; the others all did very well.

7. We really have no control over 10 percent of what happens to us.(見第14行)
have control of sth. / have control over sth. 「對……加以控制」
例:You really need to have control over your own temper.
take/gain control of sth. 掌控;接管
lose control of sth. 失控

8. The plane may be late arriving, which throws our whole schedule off. A driver may cut us off in traffic. You get the picture.(見第15行)
= Perhaps the plane will arrive late and force you to change your plans. Perhaps another car will suddenly move in front of your car. These are examples of what I mean by situations that you cannot control.

(1) 關係代名詞which引導的子句用來修飾前面的先行詞,亦即The plane may be late arriving一整句,which所指的即是「班機延誤」這整件事。
(2) throw off 意為escape、get rid of,此處指的是「把整個行程丟在一旁」,即「搞得行程大亂」之意。
(3) cut off意為block、interrupt,此處有「插隊;擋路」之意。
(4) throw off和cut off皆為可分的動詞片語,其受詞為代名詞時應置於動詞與介副詞之間。
例:Coming home from running, he quickly threw off his clothes and got into the shower.
      (Coming home from running, he quickly threw them off and got into the shower.)
(5) get the picture意為understand。

片語cut off有多種意義:
The gardener cut off several branches of the tree to help it grow better.(剪掉)
In the attack, they attempted to cut off the enemy’s supplies.(斷絕)
Our electricity was cut off.(切斷)
She can’t understand why her friends suddenly cut her off.(停止來往)
He intentionally cut himself off from other people.(隔離)
Don’t cut me off when I’m still talking!(打斷談話)
We were cut off when talking on the phone.(電話斷線)

9. How? By your reactions.(見第20行)
例:I usually pay for groceries by credit card.
        Traveling across a country by train can be very interesting.

10. Your daughter knocks over a cup of coffee and it spills onto your business shirt.(見第24行)
(1) knock over用法近於knock down「擊倒;撞倒」。
例:She got knocked over by a motorcycle when she was crossing the street.

(2) spill的三態為spill, spilled/spilt, spilled/ spilt。可為及物與不及物兩種用法。
例:I carelessly spilled coffee on my new dress.
       Oil is still spilling from the damaged ship.

(3) onto為介系詞,亦為「到……之上」,同時表示方向及位置。
例:As the wind blew, several apples fell from the tree onto the ground.
The kids are jumping on the bed.(孩子們在床上跳來跳去)
The kids jumped onto the bed.(孩子們跳上了床)

I saw a cat on the roof.(看到貓在屋頂上)
I saw a cat climb onto the roof.(看到貓爬上屋頂)

11. What happens next will be determined by how you react.(見第28行)
(被動語態) 本句中what happens next及how you react同為名詞子句,分別作為該句的主詞與受詞。

12. A short verbal battle follows.(見第35行)
= Right after this, you have a short argument.
a verbal battle = a verbal fight「口頭爭執」

13. You storm upstairs and change your shirt.(見第35行)
(1) storm在此處為動詞,意為「怒氣沖沖地衝向(某處)」,為一隱喻(metaphor)用法。
例:After the quarrel, she stormed out of the room.
(2) 類似以天氣的用字為隱喻的用法尚有:
We had a tempestuous meeting.
He thundered with rage.
His face clouded over with anger.

14. Back downstairs you find your daughter has been too busy crying to finish breakfast and get ready for school.(見第37行)
(1) too adj./adv. to V「太……以致於無法……」
(2) get ready for sth.「為某事預備妥當」

15. ..., and after a fifteen-minute delay and throwing sixty dollars away on a speeding ticket, you arrive at the school.(見第42行)
= Finally you arrive at your daughter’s school. But you are fifteen minutes late, and you have a speeding ticket that will cost you sixty dollars. That will be sixty dollars that you should not have had to spend.

(1) fifteen-minute此處做為形容詞,相近例子有:a ten-page report, a five-mile race, an eight-year-old boy等。
(2) 片語throw away此處意指「浪費」。
(3) a speeding ticket「超速罰單」

16. Your day has gotten off to a terrible start.(見第47行)
get off to a terrible start = begin very badly「開始得糟透了」
get off to a good/bad start = begin well/badly 有個好/壞的開始

17. You look forward to going home.(見第48行)
look forward to N/V-ing「期盼……;企望……」

18. When you arrive home, you find a small wedge in your relationship with your spouse and your daughter. This caps off a terrible day.(見第49行)
(1) a wedge原指一頭尖一頭寬的金屬或木頭物質,通常用來插入兩物之間使其固定(功能如門擋),或敲入某夾縫中使其分裂(功能如楔子)。此外也可用來指一塊三角形的食物,如a wedge of cheese。課文中此處指的是「使關係逐漸破裂的開端」。
drive a wedge between ... 破壞兩人之間的良好關係
例:It’s silly to let this misunderstanding drive a wedge between us.

(2) cap v. 原有cover之意。
例:The mountain is capped with snow.
片語cap off則為「完結;告終」之意。
to cap it all (off) 尤有甚者的是……;雪上加霜的是……
例:My first date with Wendy was terrible. The movie was bad and the dinner was worse. To cap it all (off), my car broke down on our way home.

19. How you reacted in those five seconds is what caused your bad day.(見第57行)
這個句子中有兩個疑問詞所引導的名詞子句,一個做為句子的主詞(How you reacted in those five seconds),一個作為主詞補語(what caused your bad day)。

20. Here is what could have, and should have, happened.(見第58行)
what could have happened指「原本可能會發生的狀況(如果你採取不同反應)」;what should have happened指「原本應當要發生的狀況(可惜你卻沒有如此去做)」。

21. Coffee splashes over you. Your daughter is about to cry.(見第59行)

(1) 動詞splash可為及物與不及物兩種用法。
例:I splashed my face with some water to keep me awake.
       Unfortunately some juice splashed onto her new white dress.

(2) be about to = be going to「正要」
例:We were about to set out when he arrived.

22. After slipping on a new shirt and picking up your briefcase, you come back down in time to look through the window and see your daughter getting on the bus.(見第64行)
(1) slip on sth. = put on sth. quickly「迅速穿上」
(2) 此處down指downstairs。
(3) look through the window 從窗戶望出去

put on 「穿上」
try on「試穿」
slip on「迅速穿上」

23. Your boss comments on how well your day is going.(見第70行)
(1) comment on sth.「對(某事)評論」
例:The mayor refused to comment on the scandal.
(2) how well your day is going為一名詞子句做on的受詞。
go well「進展順利」
例:My new job is going extremely well.

24. Don’t focus on the 10 percent you can’t change. Focus on the 90 percent you can change.(見第76行)
(1) focus (sth.) on/upon ...「專注於」
例:This survey will focus on how young adults spend their free time.

(2) 此結論也就是說Don’t focus on your problems. Focus on your reactions to your problems.