2010年3月17日 星期三

B4L3 What Is the Story behind the Bed?

第三課 床的背後有什麼故事?


1. People spend about one third of their lives asleep.(見第1行)
(1) spend 的句型中,spend 的受詞後面通常使用 on + N/V-ing或介詞片語,像這個句子中使用形容詞(asleep)來表狀態的情況較不常見,這個句子也可以寫成:
People spend about one third of their lives sleeping.

(1) spend 的句型如下:
spend + 金錢 + on + N  花金錢在某物或某人身上
spend + 時間 + V-ing 花時間在做某事
spend + 時間 + in/with ... 花時間在某處/與某人在一起
例:Parents nowadays spend a lot of money on their children.
  The boys spent the whole afternoon hanging out at the beach.
  I don’t like to spend too much time in the kitchen.
  Lydia spent most of her summer vacation with her friends.

(2) 英文中「分數」的表達法是「數字+序數」,如果數字大於1,序數要加s,例如:1/4 (one fourth)、3/8 (three eighths)、2/5 (two fifths)、7/16 (seven sixteenths)。分數加上of後就可以接名詞。

(3) 比較 asleep / sleepy / sleeping
asleep adj. 睡著了的(通常只做補語用,不可用來修飾後面的名詞),
fall asleep 睡著了;half asleep 半睡半醒的;sleeping bag 睡袋;sleeping pill 安眠藥;Let sleeping dogs lie.(勿打草驚蛇。)

2. We can survive longer without food than without sleep.(見第1行)
在本句中survive 是不及物動詞,survive 也有及物動詞用法:
survive + sth. 從……中逃生
survive + sb. 比某人活得久
survive on 以……過活
例:We were surprised to know that the cat had survived the earthquake.
  The old lady survived her husband by five years.
  Can you survive on five thousand dollars a month?

3. They laid these on the floor.(見第10行)
(1) 易與 lay 混淆的動詞如下:
lay v. [T] (laid, laid, laying) 放置;鋪設;下蛋
lie v. [I] (lay, lain, lying) 躺;位於
lie v. [I] (lied, lied, lying) 說謊
例:The carpenter laid his tools on the bench and started working.
  The hen laid an egg this morning.
  He’s always lying on the couch watching TV.
  Their summer house lies on a hill.
  It turned out that Pamela lied about her age; she’s only 17.

4. In ancient Egypt, over three thousand years ago, the pharaohs were the first to raise their beds off the floor.(見第10行)
(1) be the first to + V 第一個做某事的人
(2) 易與 raise 混淆的動詞有 rise, arise, arouse:
raise v. [T] (raised, raised) 舉起
rise v. [I] (rose, risen) 上升;增加
arise v. [I] (arose, arisen) 起源於(+ from)
arouse v. [T] (aroused, aroused) 喚醒
例:The boy raised his hand to ask the speaker a question.
  Housing prices have been rising by at least 5% each year.
  His fear of dogs arose from an experience of being bitten by one when he was six years old.
  The teacher tried everything she could to arouse her students’ interest.

(3) off 在此為介系詞用法,表「離開某物表面」。
例:Lift your feet off the floor, so I can vacuum under your desk.

5. They slept on light beds made of wood.(見第12行)
= They slept on light beds that/which were made of wood.
(1) light adj.(重量)輕的
(2) be made of 由……製成(原料仍可辨認出來)
be made from 由……製成(原料已無法辨認出來)
例:All her furniture is made of cedar.
  Beer is made from malted barley or hops.

6. The bed became a symbol of wealth.(見第18行)
= The bed symbolized wealth.
be/become a symbol of = symbolize 象徵……
例:Yellow symbolizes royalty in Chinese culture.

7. When a person stayed at a hotel for the night, he had to share a bed with strangers.(見第23行)
(1) stay ... for the night 在某處過夜
(2) share something with someone 與某人分享某物

8. If a rich person came to the hotel, the manager threw a poor traveler out of a bed to make room.(見第24行)
make room (for) 挪出空間(給)
例:Let’s take these chairs away and make room for the new TV stand.

9. After 1750, beds became beautiful pieces of furniture.(見第28行)
furniture 為不可數名詞。

10. The beds had four posts, one on each corner.(見第32行)
corner n. [C] 角落;街角
on the corner 在街角
in the corner 在(房間)角落
(just) around the corner 在附近;即將來臨

11. Beds also became higher and higher.(見第37行)
~er(比較級)and ~er(比較級)……越來越……

12. Queen Victoria slept on a bed with seven mattresses on top of each other.(見第37行)
(1) with seven mattresses on top of each other 是with + O + OC的句型,on top of each other為

13. Mattresses usually had straw on the inside (for poor people) or feathers (for the rich).(見第40行)
inside內部,裡面,可當 (名詞),(介系詞),(副詞)
見第55行Later, they used bottles with hot water inside.

14. After 1820, people slept on cotton mattresses with metal springs inside them.(見第40行)
(1) 是with + O + OC的句型,與重點分析12的第with的用法相同。
(2) inside 在此為介系詞用法,後面要接受詞them。

15. In England, people did not wear clothes in bed.(見第46行)
in bed(在床上),為片語用法,故不需使用(定)冠詞,同樣用法如:get out of bed(起床;下床)。
但bed 當一般名詞時則要加(定)冠詞,如 Queen Victoria slept on a bed with seven mattresses on top of each other.

16. It was only after 1890 that men started to wear pajamas.(見第49行)
= Before 1890, men did not wear pajamas.
為分裂句(cleft sentence)的句型,多用於強調它用來強調句子中的主詞、受詞、副詞片。
It is/was ____________ + 關代(如:that) + 剩下的字詞

17. One English prime minister, William Gladstone, filled his bottle with tea in case he was thirsty at night.(見第55行)
fill ... (up) with ... 在……中裝滿……
be filled with = be full of 充滿著……
fill (up) (+ with) 充滿
fill in 填滿;填(表)
fill out 填(表)

27. Then it looks a lot like a Western-style bed.(見第61行)
(1) look like「看起來像」,可以加上不同的副詞來表示不同程度的相像。
如:look very much like 看起來非常像
     look almost like 看起來幾乎就是
  look nothing like 看起來沒一點相像
  look a bit like 看起來有一點像

(2) 形容詞+-style表示「……風格的,……式的」
如:buffet-style dinner 歐式自助晚餐
  American-style management 美式管理
  Japanese-style interior design 日式裝潢
  antique-style coffee table 復古式咖啡桌

28. Beds today come in every size and shape.(見第63行)
= Today, you can find beds in many different sizes and shapes.

(1) come v. [I] 有,可供購買、選擇
例:This digital camera comes in four colors.
  Participants in the competition come from all ages and jobs.
  A vacation in Europe doesn’t come cheap.
(2) in every size and shape有各種尺寸和形狀,常和come這個動詞連用。