2010年3月22日 星期一

B4L4 The Happy Whitewasher

第四課 快樂的油漆工


1. There was a song in every heart and happiness in every step.(見第2行)
= Everyone felt wonderful. They felt almost like singing.

step n. [C] 腳步
step by step 按部就班
例:Watch your step, please.

2. The locust trees were in bloom and their fragrance filled the air.(見第3行)
in bloom 開花,bloom是名詞,也可以說in full bloom 花朵盛開;bloom也可以當動詞用,意思是「開花」。
例:It’s amazing to see the roses in the garden bursting into bloom all at once.

3. Tom appeared on the sidewalk with a bucket of whitewash and a brush.(見第5行)

例:three coats of whitewash(三層白漆)
  four bottles of wine(四瓶酒)
  two pieces of paper(兩張紙)
  a piece of furniture (一件傢俱)
  a piece of advice (一個忠告)

4. Thirty yards of fence, nine feet high.(見第6行)
= The fence was thirty yards long and nine feet high.

5. Life to him seemed hollow, and existence but a burden.(見第7行)
= Life felt meaningless. Being alive was not at all joyful.

but 意思是only「只不過是」,前面省略動詞was,原句為Existence was but a burden.
例:Life is but a dream. (人生不過夢一場。)

6. Sighing, he dipped his brush into the whitewash and passed it along the top.(見第8行)

(1) 這句子用了「分詞構句」的結構。sighing的主詞即後面子句的主詞he。這是「簡單式分詞構句」,湯姆一面嘆氣,一面粉刷,兩個動作差不多同時進行。

Feeling tired, I went to bed early.
Walking down the street yesterday, I ran into an old friend.

Having finished my science report, I went to a movie with Susan.
Having prepared well for the presentation, he no longer felt nervous.

7. Then he compared the small whitewashed streak with the far-reaching continent of unwhitewashed fence, and sat down discouraged.(見第9行)

(1) compare A with B:比較 A 與B
例:Compare this book with that one, and you will find that the two writers have very different styles.
     compare A to B :把A比喻為B
例:Life is often compared to a journey.

(2) far-reaching adj. 影響深遠的
例:His ideas have had a far-reaching influence on the lives of people throughout the world.

但在本課上下文,far-reaching 解釋成「廣大的」,continent 解釋成「一大片」,與small whitewashed streak有誇張對比的效果。表示「還沒粉刷的地方好大一片,粉刷了的地方只是一小塊」,真令人洩氣。


例:a far-reaching consequences(影響深遠的結果)
  a fast-moving train(快速移動的火車)
  a time-consuming job(耗時的工作)
  a heartbroken man(心碎的男子)
  well-educated people(受良好教育的人)
  homemade cookies(自製的糕點)
  a well-done steak(全熟牛排)

(3) S + sit/stand + V-ing/p.p. 分詞在此當主詞補語,修飾主詞。
例:On the roof of her house, Mandy sat looking up at the starry sky.
       He went home exhausted and disappointed.
    He stood there amazed.

8. Nothing less than a magnificent inspiration!(見第20行)
(1) 全句省略了主詞和動詞it was (= It was nothing less than a magnificent inspiration!)。

9. Before long, Ben Rogers came in sight---the very boy, of all boys, he dreaded most.(見第22行)
(1) the very + N 與名詞連用表加強語氣,指「就是那一個……」,「正好是那一個……」。
例:Sam got the job because he was the very person the company needed.

(2) of all + N 在所有的……當中
例:Of all the European countries, I like Spain and Italy the best.

(3) most 在文中當副詞,修飾動詞。
例:This problem bothers me (the) most.

10. You have to work today, don’t you?(見第30行)
don’t you是「附加問句」一般而言,前面子句若為肯定句,附加問句就用否定形式;前面子句若為否定句,附加問句就用肯定形式。
:You are a doctor, aren’t you?
 He is a lawyer, isn’t he?
 She lives in Taipei, doesn’t she?
 You can play the piano, can’t you?
 He has to do it, doesn’t he?
 Stella wasn’t born in February, was she?
 Alfred doesn’t like me, does he?
 James hasn’t gone to bed yet, has he?
 Let's go, shall we?

would rather + V + than + V
這是本課重要句型,提醒學生注意would rather 後面要用原形動詞。than後面也要用原形動詞。
He would rather die than give up.
She would rather remain single than marry a guy she does not love.

11. Ben stopped nibbling his apple.(見第44行)
(1) stop + V-ing 停止這個動作
He stopped smoking. (他戒煙了。)
She stopped crying. (她不哭了。)

(2) stop + to + V 停下來而開始……
He stopped to smoke and take a rest. (他停下來抽口煙休息一下。)

12. Tom considered---was about to consent, but he changed his mind.(見第50行)
(1) be about to 即將
(2) consent v. [I] 同意
consent to N 同意某事
consent to V 同意做……

13. You see, Aunt Polly’s awfully particular about this fence.(見第52行)
(1) awfully 非常
(2) be particular about 挑剔;講究

14. I guess there isn’t one boy in a thousand that can do it the way it’s got to be done.(見第53行)
the way + (how) S + V ... ……的方式

例:Have you seen the way Janet dances? It’s so funny!
  Mike Mussina is my favorite pitcher; I love the way he pitches.

14. And when the middle of the afternoon came, from being a poverty-stricken boy in the morning, Tom was rolling in wealth.(見第69行)
(1) poverty-stricken是由一個名詞和一個過去分詞合成的複合形容詞,常見的類似用法還有:

grief-stricken adj. 非常哀痛的
earthquake-stricken adj. 被地震蹂躪的
typhoon-stricken adj. 飽受颱風摧殘的

stricken的原形動詞為strike(strike, struck, struck/strucken),是「打」、「擊」之意;當名詞用時還可作「示威」解釋。

15. He had had a nice idle time all the while---and plenty of company---and the fence had three coats of whitewash on it!(見第76行)
(1) plenty of 很多,大量的,充裕的(後面可接可數名詞與不可數名詞

例:plenty of time
  plenty of books

(2) company n. [U] 朋友,同伴
keep good/bad company 與益友/損友交往
mixed company 男男女女,形形色色的人

(3) three coats 三層

16. If he hadn’t run out of whitewash, he would have bankrupted every boy in the village.(見第77行)
(事實上) He ran out of whitewash, so he didn’t bankrupt every boy in the village.

這是本課重要句型:相反於「過去事實」的假設語氣。條件句的動詞要用「過去完成式」;主要子句的動詞要用「would/should/could/ might + 完成式」。

例:If I had known your telephone number, I would have called you.
  (= I did not know your telephone number, so I did not call you.)
  If she had had enough money, she would have bought that sweater.
  (= She did not have enough money, so she did not buy that sweater.)