1.(1) 在英文的標點符號的用法中，凡是書籍、報紙、雜誌、電影、電視影集、戲劇、長篇樂曲、雕塑作品、繪畫、長篇詩歌等名稱，在印刷文件上，必須以斜體字（italics）或引號（quotation marks）表示。(2)英文的書籍、報紙、雜誌的名稱之前所加的定冠詞。
例：A Farewell to Arms 戰地春夢（書名）
Studio Classroom 空中英語教室（雜誌名）
Brokeback Mountain 斷背山（電影名）
the Starry Night 星夜（畫名）
the Bible聖經 (書)
the Mona Lisa蒙娜麗莎（畫）
2. [A woman with a slight smile on her face], her hands crossed over her stomach, [sits in front of a strange and beautiful landscape looking straight at you.] （2行）
(1) her hands crossed over her stomach: 獨立分詞片語，修飾主詞a woman。crossed 是過去分詞，由被動的完整句省略而來。
(2) ..., sits ... looking straight at you.
sit, stand, lie, come, go, run, fall 等表位置與行動的不完全不及物動詞，後面經常接分詞做為主詞補語。接現在分詞表示主動，接過去分詞表示被動。
例：She stood there smiling at me.
3. Some people believe the model was a young boy dressed as a woman.（16行）
(1) a young boy dressed as a woman = a young boy who was dressed as a woman
(2) 人 + be dressed as + 身分／角色：打扮成……身分／角色
人 + be dressed in + 服裝：穿……衣服
例：Jerry was dressed as a vampire at the Halloween party.
All the dancers were dressed in black tights.
4. There are many legends about him, some of which are very different from the others.（21行）
(1) ..., some of which are very different from the others為非限定的關係子句，關係代名詞which 代替前面主要子句所提的legends。
意思為There are many famous stories about da Vinci. Some of these stories are very different from the others.
(2) the others: the other legends，指其他的傳聞，與前面的some of ... 相呼應。
5. He was mainly known during his life as an engineer, and ….（28行）
(1) 人 + be known as + 身分／角色：以……（身分或角色）而為人所知
人 + be known for + 特質／特點：以……（特質或特點）而為人所知
人 + be known by + sb./sth.：由……（某人、事、物等）可知其人
人 + be known to + sb.：被……（某人）所知
例：Monet was known as one of the masters of Impressionism.
He was known for his oil painting.
A man is known by the company he keeps.
The criminal is known to the police.
6. What is it about this picture that makes it impossible to look away?（見第40行）
(1) What is it ... that makes it impossible to look away? 本句是分裂句的疑問句型，第一個it是分劣句的主詞，第2個it是虛受詞，代替to look away；impossible是受詞補語。
It is ______ that makes it impossible to look away.
※ It is/was ... that + CL 分裂句
原句：John broke the window yesterday.
It was John that/who broke the window yesterday.（強調主詞）
It was the window that John broke yesterday.（強調受詞）
It was yesterday that John broke the window.（強調時間副詞）
※動詞make, consider, find, feel, believe, think 等，為不完全及物動詞，後接受詞補語。
即 S + V + O + C句型。
例：That he speaks good English cannot be denied.
例：I don’t know if he will show up today.
Everyone in the class knows that Daniel comes from Mexico.
例：Your answer is exactly what I have in mind.
The first misconception is that all birds can fly.（補語）
that引導的名詞子句當同位語時，經常與fact, belief, conviction, report, theory, suggestion, conclusion等字連用，用來說明事實、理念、報告、理論、建議或結論的內容。
例：He gave me the impression that he hated English.
They have reached the conclusion that Lillian won the contest.
a. That the painting was partially damaged is too bad.
b. Did you know that the Mona Lisa was an oil painting on wood?
c. The truth is that she is not pregnant
d. She made the decision that she will fly to Paris for her dream vacation next month.
(1) 因為有許多不完全及物動詞（如感官動詞與使役動詞），後面接了受詞之後，意義還不夠完整，常需要再接補語，以補充說明受詞，這樣的句型就是S + V + O + C。
(2) 如果受詞是一個不定詞片語，或者是一個由 that 或 wh-words 引導出來的名詞子句，在形式上會以虛受詞 it 代替，並將不定詞片語或者名詞子句移到補語（通常是一個形容詞或名詞片語）後面。這樣的句型就是S + V + it + C + to V~/子句。