2011年1月2日 星期日

L10 Patents

課文翻譯與重點分析
1. Your first step, if you are smart, is to get a patent.(見第3行)
(1) N + is to V ....
例:Her job is to take care of the bedridden patients.
文法/句型
be動詞 + 不定詞 的使用時機:
A. 計畫與安排好的事
例:The two presidents are to meet next month.
B. 先決條件
例:If we are to qualify for the final in the tournament, we have to win our next eight games.
C. 命令
例:You are to brush your teeth before going to bed.

2. Patents are agreements between inventors and the government, giving inventors ownership of their creations for a certain amount of time.(見第5行)
(1) giving inventors ... 分詞構句
= and give inventors ...
(2) a + certain/large/small ... + amount of + 不可數名詞
= certain/large/small ... + amounts of + 不可數名詞 一定量的/大量的/少量的……
文法/句型 常用的量詞片語:
A. 接可數名詞:
a few
hundreds/thousands ... of
B. 接不可數名詞:
a little
a large/small ... amount of (= large/small ... amounts of)
a good/great deal of
C.接可數/不可數名詞:
a lot of (= lots of )
a large/small ... quantity of (= large/small ... quantities of )
a large/small ... number of (= large/small... numbers of )
plenty of

3. Patents allow a person to own an idea for an invention.(見第7行)
(1)人 + allow someone + to V ... 人允許某人……;人讓某人……
事/物 + allow someone + to V ... 事/物使某人能……
例:My sister doesn't allow me to use her laptop.
  This Internet answering machine allows you to receive, listen to, and even answer phone calls while you're online.

4. Some examples are the electric light, which was patented by Thomas Edison in 1870, the medicine aspirin, which was patented by Felix Hoffmann in 1899, and the rubber band, patented by Stephen Perry in 1845.(見第13行)
(1) 皆為形容詞子句(非限定),patented by Stephen Perry in 1845省略which was

5. Things that are not as common have also been patented, such as special motors, gears, and machinery used in the manufacturing setting.(見第16行)形容詞子句(修飾things)
(1) that are not as common
= that are not as common as the electric light, the rubber band, or aspirin

6. Strangely enough, living things can also be patented.(見第20行)
(1)living adj. 活著的(置於名詞前)
alive adj. 活著的(不置於名詞前,只可作述語或補語用放在be, seem, look, get, become, find等動詞後)
例:Countless species of living creatures are dying due to global warming.
  A dog was found alive in the rubble.

7. In fact, most patents are for improvements on existing technology, not wholly new items.(見第28行)
(1) improvement n. [C, U] 進步;改善之處;比以前進步的事物
表「某物較另一物更進步」,介系詞on
表「在某方面」,介系詞in
例:There has been a great deal of improvement in their relationship.
  This device is a great improvement on its earlier models.
  = This device is much better than its earlier models.
(2) existing adj. 現在的;現存的(置於名詞前)
例:Besides working with its existing customers, the company needs to find new ones as well.

8. But it was a new idea to combine them into one machine.(見第33行)
(1) combine A into B 把A組合成B
combine A with/and B 使A和B結合;兼顧
例:Janice is able to combine her career and her family responsibilities successfully.

9. If you spend a lot of time and effort inventing a new machine or procedure, then you should be able to benefit from it financially.(見第39行)
(1) spend time/money V-ing 花時間/金錢做……
(2) benefit v. [T, I] 獲益;有益於
人 + benefit from something/by V-ing ...人從某事當中受惠/藉由從事……而受惠
物 + benefit someone某事物對某人有益
例:Many families will benefit from the new tax policy.
  What you did will indeed benefit yourself, and your family as well.

10. You shouldn't do the work and then have someone make money out of your idea.(見第42行)
(1) have + 受詞 + V ... 使役動詞,接原形動詞,受詞表主動
例:David had his secretary make coffee for him.
have something. + p.p. 接過去分詞,受詞表被動
例:I'll have my hair permed before the party.(請人為我燙髮)
(2) make money out of your idea = make money from your idea

11. Besides, patents help to share ideas and technological information with other inventors and researchers. (見第43行)
(1) share something with someone 和某人分享、共用某物
例:Since my house is small, I have to share one room with my two brothers.

12. Finally, companies, especially large companies like IBM, Samsung, and Sony, can make a lot of money by holding patents on certain inventions and charging other companies money called royalties to use their ideas.(見第48行)
(1) hold v. [T] 持有
例:Applicants for this job are required to hold a teaching certificate.
(2) patents on/for something 某物的專利權
例:We cannot get a patent on a naturally occurring organism.
  Harvard University applied for a patent for a genetically altered mouse.
(3) called royalties前面省略了which is = ...money which is called royalties...

13. After an inventor finishes creating a new machine or process, the next step is to fill out patent paperwork.(見第53行)
(1) finish + V-ing 完成……
例:Have you finished writing your term paper?
(2) fill out the form = fill in the form

14. Usually this type of work is done by a patent attorney, a lawyer who specializes in patents.(見第56行)
(1) 頻率副詞的位置可在句首、句末、助動詞和be動詞之後、一般動詞之前。
文法/句型
頻率副詞:never、seldom、rarely、occasionally、sometimes、frequently、often、normally、usually、ever、always
其中always、ever、rarely、seldom、never不用於句首或句末,但有兩種情況例外:
A. 當always和never用於祈使句時
Always be honest to your spouse.
Never make the same mistake twice.
B. 當rarely、seldom、never用於倒裝句時(較為正式)
Rarely does she have a chance to socialize with people because of her busy job.
Seldom does Edmond eat out; he loves cooking for himself.
Never would I choose to do something knowing that it would hurt my family.
(2) a lawyer who specializes in patents是a patent attorney的同位語。

15. Patent attorneys can be very expensive, but they are almost always necessary because they make sure the patents are filed correctly and do not copy previously patented work.(見第58行)
(1) make sure (that) + 子句
make sure of + N
例:Make sure of the safety procedures before you operate the machine.

16. It usually costs US$645 to file a registration, though it can be higher in some cases. (見第65行)
(1) though conj. 但是(= but)
例:I have to pick up an important client at the airport tomorrow, though I don't know what he looks like.
(2) in some cases = in some situations在某些事例上

17. Once the patent process is completed, an inventor's idea still may not be completely protected.(見第70行)
(1)once conj. 一旦 (= as soon as)

18. Unless patents are applied for in other countries as well, there is nothing to stop imitators around the world from copying that idea.(見第73行)
(1) unless conj. 除非 (= if ... not)
例:Unless you apologize first, Phoebe will never make up with you.
  = If you don't apologize first, Phoebe will never make up with you.
(2) as well 也,置於句尾
例:I've collected all of the singer's albums and I've also collected his posters.
  = I've collected all of the singer's albums and his posters as well/too.

VOCABULARY
2. patent adj. 有專利的;專利權的
file/apply for/take out a patent 提出/申請/得到專利權
a patent on/for something 某物的專利權
patent office 專利局
例:The company took out a patent on a robotic vacuum cleaner.

3. disagreement n. [C, U] 意見不一致
disagree v. [I] 不同意
come to/reach/work out an agreement 達成協議
agree with somebody about/on something 同意某人某事
I couldn't agree more. 我非常同意。
例:Phil came to an agreement with his clients.

4. joint/private/public ownership 共有權/私有權/公眾所有權
membership 會員資格
professorship 教授的職位
statesmanship 政治手腕

5. create v. [T] 創造
creator n. [C] 創造者;創作者
creative adj. 創作的;有創造力的
creativity n. [U] 創造力
creature n. [C] 生物
create a sensation/bad feeling 造成轟動/引起反感
All men are created equal. 人人生而平等。
例:Charles M. Schulz was the creator of Snoopy.
  The creative songwriter displayed creativity in his songs.
  Whales are the greatest creatures ever to inhabit the sea.

6. state n. [C] 狀態
statement n. [C] 聲明
in a ... state 在……的狀況
make/give/issue a statement 提出聲明
a statement on/about 關於……的聲明
例:She was in a confused state and couldn't make any decision.
  The president of the U.S. made a statement on the bombings in Iraq.
statement 聲明:以口頭或書面傳達訊息或意見,通常用在正式情況。
例:the statement made by the government spokesperson
declaration 宣告:相當正式的聲明,特別是宣告某種目的、信念或情感。
例:the declaration of war
announcement 宣布,公告:以口頭或書面告知訊息。
例:announcement of a death in the newspaper

8.composed adj. 沉著的
composedly adv. 沉著地
composure n. [U] 沉著冷靜
be composed of = be made up of = consist of 由……組成的
compose oneself 鎮靜
keep/maintain/lose one's composure 保持/失去鎮定
例:The committee is largely composed/made up of educational specialists.
  When the fire broke out, Ashley quickly composed herself and helped her children out of the house.
  Ashley maintains great composure when faced with a crisis.

10. electric adj. 需要用到電的;產生電的
electrical adj. 跟電有關的
兩個意思不同,但也有兩者皆可的情形,
例:electric/electrical current(電流) electric/electrical shock(觸電)
electronic adj. 電子的

11. machinery n. [U] 機器(量詞用a piece of)
mechanic n. [C] 技工
mechanics n. [U] 機械學
agricultural/farm/industrial machinery 農業/工業機具
answering/coffee/washing/sewing/fax machine 電話答錄機/咖啡機/洗衣機/裁縫機/傳真機
automatic teller machine (ATM) 自動提款機
例:My car broke down so I need a mechanic to fix it.
  Karl took a course in mechanics.

13. raise/address/resolve an issue 提出/處理/解決問題
a(n) major/thorny issue 重要的/棘手的問題
take issue with somebody over/on something 和某人在某事上持不同的意見
at issue 爭議中待解決的
例:The union took issue with the company over the pay cut.
  What is at issue is whether teachers have the right to strike.

15. on the whole 大體而言
as a whole 就全體來看
the whole of something 全部的……
例:On the whole, the singer's debut concert was pretty good.
  The class as a whole is working harder.

17. financial crisis/difficulty 金融危機/財務困難
financial adviser 理財顧問
finance department 財務部門

18. district attorney 地方檢察官;檢察官
defense attorney 辯護律師

21. stimulating adj. 刺激性的;令人興奮的
stimulant n. [C] 興奮劑;刺激
stimulus n. [C] (pl. stimuli) 激勵;鼓舞;刺激
例:She found her new working environment challenging and stimulating.
  Coffee and cola contain caffeine, a stimulant that can boost your energy.
  Tourism has been a stimulant/stimulus to the island's economic development.

22. charge v. [T, I] 充電;指控 n. [C] 充電;責任;指控
be charged with (a crime) 被控有……罪
free of charge 免費 (= without charge)
service/admission charge 服務費/入場費
in charge of 負責照料
take charge of 負責管理
in/under one's charge 由……照料
例:The man was charged with murdering his girlfriend.
  Nancy is in charge of the personnel department.
  My sister asked me to take charge of her dog while she was away on vacation.

25. to complicate matters further 使事情更棘手,雪上加霜
develop complications 產生併發症
例:We missed the last train, and to complicate matters further, all the hotels were booked.
  The patient is under strict supervision to reduce the risk of developing complications.

26.specialized adj. 專門的;特殊的
specialty n. [C] 專長
specialized knowledge/training/care 專門知識/訓練/照顧
例:The doctor's specialty is in brain surgery.

27. file v. [T] 歸檔 n. [C] 檔案;文件夾;卷宗
an attached file 附加檔案
keep something on files 將……彙存
例:These books will be filed alphabetically by title.
  The secretary kept the letters on files.

29. reviewer n. [C] 書評人;戲評人;影評人
come up for review 提出受到審查
judicial review 司法審查
例:This movie has been praised by many reviewers.
  All of the applications will come up for review next week.

30. submit oneself to 屈服於……;順從……(= give in to)
in submission to 受制於……;服從於……
例:He submitted himself to questioning by the local police.
  In submission to protest, the local government had no choice but to postpone building the landfill.

31. register n. [C] 註冊;登記;登記簿
to register a company/trademark 營利事業登記/商標登記
registry office 戶籍登記處
family register 戶口名簿
(Br) registered post = (Am) certified mail 掛號郵件
cash register 收銀機
例:I'm going to the local registry office to register my marriage.

IDIOMS AND PHRASES
1. strangely enough = curiously/oddly enough
bad enough 已經夠糟了
hard/difficult enough 已經夠辛苦了
lucky/fortunate enough to 夠幸運可以……
例:Maggie doesn't play sports, but curiously enough, she loves watching them on TV.
It was bad enough that I overslept this morning, and then I left my wallet at home.
Life is hard/difficult enough for Betty apart from her getting fired.
I probably won't get the job, but I hope I am fortunate enough to get an interview.

5 則留言:

Chris 提到...

When I see your post, I know it is almost the end of the semester.

貓貓 提到...

Yes, and happy new year Chris!

Lisa Chen 提到...

Time flies.

寶純 提到...

I...well, I will have a GEPT test tomorrow. Although I don't feel nervous about that, I am afraid of making mistakes on the test. That's right, I can do it! I need to have self-confidence. ^^

Chris 提到...

Don't worry. Be yourself and then you can pass. After all, you are good enough to pass it.